BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
independence, the Nigeria government has desperately continued to make
concerted effort in the area of quantitative (but not qualitative) supply of
mass housing through huge budgetary and policy provisions but, surprisingly,
the rate at which existing ones are collapsing calls for an urgent attention.
The site of building collapse scattered across the length and breadth of
Nigeria is quite alarming that it is unimaginable what effects it will have on
the building industry and Nigeria economy as a whole. One could imagine what
edifices these buildings would have been if only they were constructed
accordingly. It has been reported that Nigeria, especially Lagos State has
become the “world’s junk-yard” of collapsed buildings worth billions of naira
(Famoroti, 2005). It is quite unimaginable that a county blessed with so great
potentials in its construction industry can experience such magnitude of
building collapse Fadamiro in 2002 defined building as “an enclosure for spaces
designed for specific use, meant to control local climate, distribute services
and evacuate waste”. Buildings can be defined as structural entities capable of
securing self by transmitting weights to the ground. More so, buildings are
defined “as structures for human activities, which must be safe for the
occupants”(Odulami, 2002). However, these same buildings have been posing
treats and dangers to people either during or after construction as a result of
its collapse. Collapse as a whole occurs when part or whole body of a structure
fails and suddenly gives way, the structure, as a result of this failure, could
not meet the purpose for which it was meant for. Building collapse is an
extreme case of building failure. It means the super-structure crashes down
totally or partially (Arilesere, 2002). Building failure occurs when there is a
defect in one or more elements of the building caused by inability of the
material making up the components of such building elements to perform its
original function effectively, which may finally lead to building collapse.
Buildings are meant to provide conveniences and shelter to the people, but the
same building has been a danger trap to the same people. Building is expected
to meet certain basic requirements such as buildability, design performance, cost
effectiveness, quality, safety and timely completion (Olusola, Atta &
Ayangade, 2002). Generally, buildings are expected to be elegant and functional
but many projects are constructed that do not meet any of these basic
requirements. The recurring incidence of building collapse, some of which
claimed innocent lives is a consequence of this. Many studies has been carried
out and various workshops organized in major cities of the country by various
bodies, government agencies and institution in order to look into causes of the
incidence of dampness in residential building, but none has been able to come
out with how each of the determined factors directly lead to building collapse
in the country. There are many factors that cause dampness in residential
building and they are structural design and quality management according to
Olusola (2002).The quality management entails material variability, testing
variability, judgment factor, contractors’ variability, poorly skilled workmen
and unprofessional conduct. The study aimed at examining the cases of assessment
of control in dampnessin residential building with a view of identifying the
causes, effect and solution.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
collapse is a defect or imperfection, deficiency or fault in a building element
or component. It may also be as a result of omission of performance. The degree
of building collapse can therefore be related to the extent or degree of
deviation of a building from the “as – built” state which is in most cases
represent the acceptable standard within the neighborhood, locality, state or
country. (Ikpo, 1998). However, building collapse can simply be defined as a
total or partial/progressive failure of one or more components of a building
leading to the inability of the building to perform its principal function of
comfort, satisfaction, safety and stability. The incessant buildings collapse
in Nigeria has become a great concern to all the stakeholders – the
professionals in building industry, government, private developers, clients and
users, as well as the neighborhood residents. Fall out of the researcher’s
concern about the increasing incidents of collapse building nation-wide form
the basis for this study to find out the major causes, effects and probable
remedial measures to collapse of buildings in Nigeria.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
following are the objectives of this study:
the control of dampness in residential building.
identify the effects of dampness in residential building.
identify the remedial measures or approaches to dampness in residential
are the causes of dampness in residential building?
are the effects of dampness in residential building?
are the remedial measures or approaches to dampness in residential building?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
following are the significance of this study:
outcome of this study will educate the general public and the government of the
day on the causes, effect and solutions to the cases of dampness in residential
research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers
interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if
applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
study on assessment of control in dampnessin residential building with careful
examination of the causes and the effects with a view of finding a lasting
solution to the issue of incessant dampness in residential building.
constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher
in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the
process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other
academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the
D. (2000). The role of professionals in averting building collapse.
Proceedings of a workshop on Building collapse: Causes, prevention and
remedies(pp. 60-68). The Nigerian Institute of Building, Lagos State.
J.A. (2002). An assessment of building regulations and standards and the
implication for dampness in residential building. In D.R. Ogunsemi (Ed.),
Building Collapse: Causes, prevention and remedies (pp. 28-39). The Nigerian
Institute of Building, Ondo State.
F. (2006, March 30). Before the next building collapse. The Punch (p. 9)
I. J. (1998). Application of the Weibull Distribution Technique in the
Prediction of the Times between Failures (MTBF) of Building Components,
Nigerian Journal of Construction Technology and Management, Vol. 1, No 1, P. 79
A.A. (2002). Building materials specification and enforcement on site. InD.R.
Ogunsemi (Ed.), Building Collapse: Causes, prevention and remedies (pp. 22-27).
The Nigerian Institute of Building, Ondo State
K.O. (2002). Structural stability of building structures. In D.R.
Ogunsemi(Ed.), Building Collapse: Causes, prevention and remedies (pp. 50-73).
The Nigerian Institute of Building, Ondo State.