work had been designed to extensively focus on the availability of
instructional materials for the teaching of social studies in primary schools
using Esan West Local Government Area as a case study; it is designed to assess
the extent of utilization of these materials in teaching of Social studies in
junior Primary schools. The researchers adopted survey research design in
addressing the problems of the study. In the course of the research, a
checklist was designed on the availability of instructional materials; and
these materials were recorded across six Primary schools in Esan West Local
Government. The findings revealed that there is low level of material
availability in teaching of Social studies in Primary schools; also it was
found that instructional materials available in most were crude in nature and
does not meet modern day standards. Based on the findings of the study, some
recommendations were made, amongst which are:
That Government should make available
instructional materials so as effective teaching could be carried out in the Primary
Adequate trained teachers should be
recruited and posted to schools. The teacher should be encouraged to take
refresher courses to improve upon their techniques from time to time.
1.1 Background of the Study
teacher is effective only if the students learn more and learn with greater
ease more particularly, when such learning positively impact on their
permanence. To know how to teach, it is necessary to know how students learn.
Many psychologists have carried out experiments on how students learn and came
up with theories which have greatly influenced teaching and learning. You need
to be familiar with major theories of learning which would enable you
understand your students, their interest, mental attitude, individual
differences, their readiness level, those things that motivate them to learn as
well as a variety of learning experiences which the students could be exposed
to and made to participate actively in.
involves many activities, behaviours and processes. There are various
definitions of teaching. According to Russon and Wanous (2003), teaching is the
process of directing or guiding learning. It is the art of causing another to
learn. Teaching can also be seen as the arrangement of situations which will
lead to desirable and satisfying ends Ifeagwu (2000) defined teaching as a two
– way traffic system involving exchange of ideas between the teacher and the
students. He further defined teaching as a series of activities geared towards
helping students “learn how to learn”.
the above definitions, it can be seen that teaching involves a teacher, learner
(s), learning/ teaching materials, learning activities and effective
communication between teacher and learner. The goal of teaching is to bring
about desired learning in the students. This study will like to emphasize here
that your success at teaching is measured by the achievement of your students.
If they learn what they are supposed to learn under your direction, then you
have successfully taught. If not, then you have failed.
to Canning (2006), the most important aspect of good teaching lies in
discovering and applying the best ways of learning. We shall at this stage
consider the concept of learning, how students learn and hindrances to
effective learning. There is one kind of learning; it is therefore not easy to
define it. Many scholars and educationists have made several attempts to define
learning. Generally, learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change
in behaviour that comes from reinforced practice. It must be mentioned at this
point that reinforcement plays a vital role in a learning process.
Reinforcement may be defined as any condition that exists to promote learning.
In a classroom setting, reinforcement could be seen as immediate knowledge of
the results of student’s efforts which encourage them (students) to continue.
Knowledge of scores, words of encouragement or praise or monetary rewards are
all examples of reinforcement that work.
to Ifeagwu (2000) learning can be defined as the behavioural change that take
place at the end of a teacher – student’s interaction in a classroom setting.
In other words, learning is the experience gained from interaction in a
classroom setting. In other words, learning is the experience gained from
interactions. As Daugherty (2004) puts it, learning is a change in an
individual through some form of experience. This is sometimes referred to as a
desirable change in the behaviour of the human being. Learning is therefore a
modification of behaviour. It is a process which involves changes in perception
(2003) says learning is the process by which we acquire and retain attitudes,
knowledge, understanding, skills and capabilities that cannot be attributed to
inherited behavioural patterns or physical growth. From the above definitions,
it can be observed that learning involves the acquisition of knowledge, habits,
skill, attitudes and patterns of behaviour that are desirable through some form
of experience of interactions. It must be emphasized here that the concept of
change is inherent in the concept of learning. If there is any change in
behavior it means that learning is taking place or has taken place.
two major characteristics inherent in human learning are the active and
continuous nature of behavioral changes. Learning is an active process in the
sense that the learner has to be involved in the learning activities. Learning
is continuous in the sense that it takes place from cradle to the grave, before
school, in school, outside of school and all through life what is therefore
expected of you as teacher is to understand how you can influence the student
to change his behaviour through various educational experiences. Your objective
should be of guide to your students through appropriate learning experiences
that would bring about desirable changes in them.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
has been identified that using instructional material to facilitate learning or
instructions is not always the issue but how to use it and its availability.
Basing our discussion on foreign experience, instructional material is
available in large quantity “the increased quality and quantity of
instructional material, are producing a split from the traditional audio visual
aids approach to the more comprehensive and efficient learning resource
teacher will agree that during the last decades the quality of instructional
resource, including textbooks had greatly improved, but with quantitative
changes and a rapidly multiplying supply of available materials, the teachers
problem of selection has grown increasingly acute” (Asudorf 2009:278).
material in great qualities is being placed in school at an ever increasing
rate. The teacher’s problem today, then, is not the lack of materials, but how
to make the best instructional use of those available to him” (Jarolinek 2001).
Unfortunately, instructional materials especially with the modern innovations
are grossly lacking and faced with a lot of problems in it’s used by teachers.
Not only have Social studies been taught in schools since formal western type
education was first introduced into the country, after the attainment of
political independence in 1960, the wisdom of giving a vocational course so
much importance in government and education also began gradually to be
some people fully and openly canvassed in house of assembly to replace this
vocational course with a science that would allow students to read science
courses (Bamgbose 2006: 12-13). Others who were particularly worried by the
problem most people in the country actually have in understanding Social
studies and practicing well in it, advised that more effort should be put into
the teaching of major science course to enable them serve as an alternative to Social
studies (Osaji 2009: 159; quoting the white paper on Udoji Report)
overall effect of suggestions and pressures of this kind was to bring about an
important shift in the attitude of the government particularly, at the federal
level to the teaching of Social studies. The shift too to begin with the form
of an admission by government to scrap out the vocational language outrightly.
The implication of this which government came to see and appreciate is that if
suspicion from the masses, it has to decline any funds for instructional
material. The government also came to see other science course as an
alternative to Social studies more clearly.
the formal introduction of Social into schools, certain subjects were doing the
job of social education. Such subjects, according to Regan and Macaulay (2007)
include history, geography, civics and sociology. History by that time was much
emphasized because it was believed to perform certain functions like inspiring
nationalism, strengthening the mind, fostering citizenship training (social
education), and encouraging role learning. It is also evidence that the non –
availability of senior Primary Social studies syllabus seems to suggest that
the Nigerian educational system is still paying lip – service on citizenship
education with its confined utilitarian value. Although the junior Primary Social
studies towards preparing the learners to be human rational, skillful in
decision making, participating and responsible citizens in a world that is
becoming complex and interdependent. It is with these in mind that the
following research questions are formulated in other to aid the research work.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
purpose of this study is to find out whether instructional materials for the
teaching and learning of social studies in primary school are available if
available, are they functioning? Are they adequate? If sufficient, do we have
qualified teachers using them for the teaching and learning of Social studies?
1.4 Research Questions
instructional materials for the teaching and learning of social studies
available in our primary schools?
2. If available, are they functioning and
adequate for the teaching and learning of social studies in our schools?
we have qualified teachers using the available instructional materials for the
teaching and learning of social studies?
1.5 Significance of the Study
research work will benefit students in primary,Primary and tertiary
institutions because they will fully understand the impact that instructional
materials have on how they learn. Teachers will also benefit from this research
work in ways that they will understand how instructional materials can aid in
their teaching of the subject.
will benefit from this study because it will serve as a baseline to what should
be expected from teachers and students alike. And also policy makers will benefit
from this study because they understand how the policies will affect teachers
and students and how these policies can be improved on.