EFFECTS OF VIOLENCE AND INTER-TRIBAL CONFLICTS ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN WARRI

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EFFECTS OF VIOLENCE AND INTER-TRIBAL CONFLICTS ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN WARRI

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Over the years, conflicts have been ravaging the black continent of Africa. These have been associated by violence, civil strife and incessant killings (Afisi 2009 and Afolabi 2009). The most dominant actors in this conflict are usually youths. These conflicts are usually accompanied with inccessant destruction of lives and property, huge economic loss, spread of endemic diseases, massive displacement of people and huge refugee crisis. The proliferation of small arms and light weapons, human and drug trafficking, illegal exploitation of natural resources and banditry can be categorised as other issues relating to conflicts and violence among youths (Afolabi 2009). No wonder Schmidt (2016) postulated that Africa brings an image of a continent in crisis, embedded with war and corruption, and imploding from disease and starvation.

In Nigeria, various violent conflict situations have erupted and the causes or sources have also been numerous. Take for example, between 1967 and 1970 the ethnic and cultural diversity of many Nigerians came to manifest into what was known as the Biafran civil war. Additionally, Nigeria has experienced at least four main military coups among general socio-political and economic inequalities. Other sources of conflict in Nigeria include the high level of mass discontent from the high rate of unemployment among youths, low standard of living, marginalisation of the masses, emasculation of labour and many other unresolved social ills.

[1]           The conflict in the Niger Delta, home to Nigeria’s oil and gas production, the linchpin of the economy and the country’s main revenue earner, is one of the conflicts that has become protracted, vitriolic and assumed an international dimension. The resistance movements in the Niger Delta started with the Ijaw leader Isaac Boro in the 1960s. This was taken up by Ken Saro-Wiwa’s led Movement for the survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) and continued with the explosive confrontation between the Abacha military junta and Ijaw groups around the city of Warri in 1997. The escalation of the conflict in 2006; kidnap of oil workers, attack on soldiers, destruction of oil pipelines and oil facilities, were accompanied by demands for resource control and economic development of the region. The fear has thus, been expressed that democracy must be allowed to flourish in order to avert a major conflict that could lead to the break up of the country.

From the early 1990s, many of the Niger Delta states have assumed the easily observed roles of a conflict-rampaging region. There has been a cycle of protests and crises in the Niger Delta, particularly in Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers States. Youth restiveness has been the major factor in these protests. Communal clashes and inter-tribal crises have become a common attribute of the Niger Delta most especially in Delta State. The clashes may be from conflict between oil communities and oil companies, between communities or ethnic groups and within communities. In all these conflicts, the main instruments of violence have been the marginalised and alienated youth groups in the region.

Inter-community conflict in the Niger Delta can be separated into three classifications: social interactions amongst Niger Delta Communities: the economic structure of the Niger Delta region; and inadequate political features to slow down tension coming from the previous two factors. Be that as it may, the current writing has not had the option to convincingly connect Niger Delta Communities'' mentalities to social and eco-political theoretical clarifications; consequently, it has not had any broad consequences for understanding the causality of between network struggles in the Niger Delta. Social theoretical clarifications progressed by the current writing as reasons for between network struggle contend that social unevenness between ethnic bunches is liable for this contention (Ukiwo, 2007). For instance, ethnic clash between the Ijaws and Itsekiris is used to clarify the contention between the two NDCs rising up out of every tribal group. Social theories can likewise clarify inter-community conflict through social injustice and inequity in the allocation of scarce resources by government officials and Multi National Corporations (MNCs) alike, (Aghalino, 2009a).

Economically, the current writing contends that individual financial interests are a main consideration in clashes between Niger Delta Communities (Ikelegbe, 2005). For instance, people seeking after their very own egotistical advantages use community goals as a pretext, to try and achieve their own aims. In other words, whilst Niger Delta Communities are deemed to be violently engaging one another over economic gains, Ikelegbe contended that just a few individuals are responsible for instigating these fights for selfish gains (2005). Ukoha Ukiwo bought in to the view that oil continues to lead to ethnic marginalisation, which crumbles into inter-community conflict. Consequently, socially and economically, Ukiwo clarified the reasons for the causes of inter-community conflict from the point of view of inter-ethnic struggle. Like Ikelegbe’s economic argument, the existing literature argues that inter-community conflict occurs because individuals attempt to enrich themselves by gaining political power with the support of their community, which in turn gives them control over oil rents (Akpan, 2010). This exemplifies that what is viewed as political conflict between Niger Delta Communities is in fact political conflict between individuals from different communities who are using inter-community conflict as a pretext.

No doubt, conflict and violence have caused more harms than good among the Nigerian youths. Its possible effects on the youths is so enormous as it has sent some to their early grave, some to jail, some have been rendered physically challenged while some are homeless and become nonentities in the society. Based on these claims, the research seeks to examine inter-tribal conflict, violence and its effect on youth development; a case study of Warri Kingdom.

1.2       Problem Statement

Conflict is a situation in which two or more persons desire goals, that are perceived obtainable only by either persons but not both (Stagner, 1997). This is shown by (structure) the parties’ conflict of interest, (behaviour) their communications and (attitude) inclination to diminish the concern of others (Galtung, 1996). Conflict is inherent in every human society (Donohue and Knolt, 1992) as such it is not an avoidable pathological phenomenon but an essential ingredient in the balance and vitality of group life (Simmel, 1998). In other words, “conflict is the means to change and means by which social values of welfare, security, justice and opportunities for personal development can be achieved” (Burton, 1987). What all of these suggest is that though conflict is part of any society, it does not necessarily have to be violent. However, in the opinion of Lewis Coser, conflicts come from goals incompatibility, struggle over values, status and claims to power and scarce resource with the aim of the opponent being to neutralise, injure or eliminate rival (Coser, 1956). Most conflicts in Nigeria are identifiable with Coser’s variant.

The unimaginable and numerous crisis, bombings, killings, kidnappings and destruction of lives and property by aggrieved youths in Nigeria particularly in Warri Kingdom are chasing away investors and foreigners already in the land and also discouraging others from outside the land from coming into the environments to invest to bring about economic growth and development among youths in the locality.[2]

1.3       Research Questions

            The followings are some of the research questions that this study intends to answer:

i)                    What are the effects of conflicts and violence on the social development of youths in Warri Kingdom?

ii)                  What are the effects of conflicts and violence on the economic development of Warri Kingdom?

iii)                What are the causes of inter-tribal, conflict and violence among the youths in Warri Kingdom?

iv)                What are the possible solutions to the challenge of inter-tribal, conflict and violence among the youths in Warri Kingdom?

1.4       Research Objectives

The general objective of this study is to examine inter-tribal conflict, violence and its effect on youth development; a case study of Warri Kingdom. The specific objectives are:

i)                    To examine the effects of conflicts and violence on the social development of youths in Warri Kingdom

ii)                  To find out the effects of conflicts and violence on the economic development of Warri Kingdom

iii)                To understand the causes of inter-tribal, conflict and violence among the youths in Warri Kingdom

iv)                To proffer the possible solutions to the challenge of inter-tribal, conflict and violence among the youths in Warri Kingdom

 

1.5       Significance of the Study

No doubt, conflict is an inevitable aspect of human interaction and it is capable of causing serious problems in the human society if not properly managed. It is sometimes caused by various factors like value, resources, religion etc and this usually has more impacts on the social, cultural, religious and most importantly economic lives of the parties or places involved. It is on that basis that this study seeks to examine inter-tribal conflict, violence and its effect on youth development; a case study of Warri Kingdom. Therefore, this study will provide information, data that will help individuals to foster good interpersonal relationship with one another. It will be useful for researchers that may wish to research on conflict and its effects. This study will contribute to the already existing literature in the area of conflictology. The findings of the study will highlight to political and religious heads of various communities in the State and even in Nigeria, the economic, political and social reasons for good interpersonal relationships among individuals in Warri Kingdom of Delta State, Nigeria and how this will bring unity, harmony and economic development in the State.

1.6       Scope of the Study

The research work attempts to examine inter-tribal conflict, violence and its effect on youth development; a case study of Warri Kingdom. The causes and effects of these conflicts on the peaceful co-existence of citizens and the economy are also examined. The focus of this work is on various violence and inter-tribal conflicts that have occurred in Warri Kingdom and the effects it has had on the socioeconomic, social system, economic and the development of the State. The relationship between conflict and economic growth and development is also determined.

Various ethnic groups like the Urhobos, Ijaws, Itshekiri and few of Isoko, Aboh that make up the dominant ethnic groups in Warri Kingdom were interviewed to understand the root causes of violence and inter-tribal conflicts in the region and the effects it has had on them over the years. Lastly, the research work proposes recommendations and strategies for handling violence and conflicts in Warri Kingdom.

1.7       Limitations of the Study

In the course of this study the researcher encountered time as one of the challenges to the research work. It was anticipated that the time for the study may not be enough to carry out intensive and extensive study since some of the information is not easily and quickly available. Therefore the researcher used extra time; weekends so as to be able to obtain information from the respondents. Another limitation to the study was the issue of information confidentiality most of respondents hesitate on the provision of sufficient information. Therefore, the researcher had to assure the respondents that information that would be provided will be used for research purpose only, and will not be disclosed to anyone not involved in this study. Lastly, funds provided is not enough to meet all expenses during the study like transport cost, meal allowance, photocopies and stationeries expenses. Hence the researcher conducted the study in accordance with the fund provided by the sponsor and the researcher own fund.

1.8       Conceptual Clarification

A conceptual framework according to Orodho (2009) is a type of a model that illustrates the nature of relationships between independent and dependent variables in the study.

Independent Variables                     Intervening Variable             Dependent Variable

 

 

 

 

 


The conceptual framework in the diagram above explains the relationships between violence, inter-tribal conflict and youth development in Warri Kingdom, Delta State. It can be deduced from the diagram that absence of violence, crisis or conflict among individuals, groups or communities as the case may be, will bring about social development among the people in the communities as well as economic growth and development in Delta State and vice versa.



[1] Afolabi, B. T. (2009). “Peacemaking in the ECOWAS Region: Challenges and Prospects.” Conflict Trends.

Durban: Accord, (2): 24. Pg 1

2 Afisi, O. T. (2009). “Tracing Contemporary Africa’s Conflict Situation to Colonialism: A Breakdown of

Communication among Natives.” Academic Journals, Philosophy Papers and Reviews 1(4): 59–66. Pg1

3 Stagner, R., (1997). Ecomog Peacekeeping in Nigeria. America Peace Review Journal Vol. 1, No. 1. Pg 2

4 Galtung J., (1996). Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilisation International

Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO). Pg 2

5 Donohue, W.A., and Knolt R., (1992). Managing Interpersonal Conflicts, Newbury. Pg 2

6 Simmel, G., (1998). Cited in Garuba, A., (ed.) Capacity Building for Crises Management in Africa. Lagos,

Gabuno publishing Co. Limited. Pg 3

7 Burton, J., (1987). World Society, American Lehan University Press. Pg 3

8 Coser, L., (1956). The Function of Social Conflict, London, Free Press. Pg 3

EFFECTS OF VIOLENCE AND INTER-TRIBAL CONFLICTS ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN WARRI

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Background to the Study Over the years, conflicts have been ravaging the black continent of Africa. These have been associated by violence, civil strife and incessant killings (Afisi 2009 and Afolabi 2009). The most dominant actors in this conflict are usually youths. These conflicts are usually accompanied with inccessant destruction of lives and property, huge economic loss, spread of endemic diseases, massive displacement of people and huge refugee crisis. The proliferation of small arms and light weapons, human and drug trafficking, illegal exploitation of natural resources and banditry can be categorised as other issues relating to conflicts and violence among youths (Afolabi 2009). No wonder Schmidt (2016) postulated that Africa brings an image of a continent in crisis, embedded with war and corruption, and imploding from disease and starvation. In Nigeria, various violent conflict situations have erupted and the causes or sources have also been numerous. Take for example, between 1967 and 1970 the ethnic and cultural diversity of many Nigerians came to manifest into what was known as the Biafran civil war. Additionally, Nigeria has experienced at least four main military coups among general socio-political and economic inequalities. Other sources of conflict in Nigeria include the high level of mass discontent from the high rate of unemployment among youths, low standard of living, marginalisation of the masses, emasculation of labour and many other unresolved socia.. international relations project topics

EFFECTS OF VIOLENCE AND INTER-TRIBAL CONFLICTS ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT IN WARRI

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