COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF YAM AND CASSAVA ENTERPRISES IN ESSIEN UDIM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE


COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF YAM AND CASSAVA ENTERPRISES IN ESSIEN UDIM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF YAM AND CASSAVA ENTERPRISES IN ESSIEN UDIM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                   INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

The agricultural sector has always been an important component of Nigeria economy with over 70 percent of the population engaged in agriculture and agricultural related activities (Obasi & Agu, 2000). The sector is almost entirely dominated by small scale resource poor farmers living in rural areas, with farm holdings of 1-2 hectares, which are usually scattered over a wide area.

Yam and cassava production are major enterprises in agriculture and are becoming increasingly popular owing to greater appreciation of their food value. Yam and cassava are staple food crops, being the source of daily carbohydrate intake for a large populace of the world (FAO, 1990). The carbohydrates are mostly starchy in nature, found in storage organs, which may be enlarged roots or tubers (O’ Hair, 1990). Yam and cassava are the most important of all the arable food crops grown in the southern agro-ecological zones of Nigeria, closely followed, inorder of economic importance by maize and rice. They were regarded as food mainly for the poor, and hence played a very minor role in international trade. This misconception has lingered for so long because of lack of appreciation of the number of people who depend on these crops, and the number of lives that have been saved during famine or disasters by these crops (FAO, 1990).

Yam and cassava are often the main dietary staple for low income consumers. They are grown by farmers as subsistence crops on small plots of land ranging from two to twenty hectares depending on the region. In Africa, yam and cassava are usually subsistence crops grown mainly as food, so the farmers keep sufficient to feed his family and sells only the surplus. However there is now a growing commercial market for them.

Comparing the output of various crops in Nigeria, cassava production ranked first, followed by yam product at 27 million tonnes in 2002 (FAO 2004). Yam and cassava are important not only as food crops but even more as major sources of income for rural households. Their use in some industries as livestock feed is well known but is gradually increasing. They have become prominent in the industrial sector of the economy. As food crops, yam and cassava have some inherent characteristics, which make them attractive, especially to small holder farmers in Nigeria. First, they are rich in carbohydrates especially starch and consequently have multiplicity of end users. Secondly, they are available all the year round making it preferable to other more seasonal crops such as grains, peas, beans, and other crops for food security. Moreover, yam and cassava are tolerant to low soil fertility and highly resistant to drought, pests and diseases.

  • Problem Statement

The problems faced by the farmers, traders, etc. are enormous despite the fact that some root/tuber crop enterprises are economically viable. Agriculture is practiced by a large proportion of Nigerians but most of them operate on small holdings (Adegeye and Dittoh,1985). As a matter of fact, land is the only input of great importance and it can constitute a serious problem to farm growth where there is need for expansion (Heady and Olayide, 1982)

Women constitute some proportion of labour input in root/tuber crops production besides yam and cassava in the study area. However, the low level of education and illiteracy amongst the farmers constitute a hindrance to agricultural productivity. This made farmers to make little or no use of the improved varieties of root and tuber crops. These problems have called for the need of extension agents and government agencies to teach and extend new technologies and modern methods of farming to the rural farmers.

The adoption of new innovations by the farmers is important if they are to achieve increased agricultural production and higher income.The low profitability of certain root and tuber crops affects their production and also, lack of involvement of youths in root/tuber crops affects their production invariably.

Production uncertainties, which are mostly environmental factors, also play asignificant role in crop production (Adegeye and Dittob, 1983).Crop failure can result if rain does not fall at all under rain fed agriculture, or if it does not fall at the tight time. There may on the other hand, be excessive rainfall like in the South Eastern states of Nigeria which can cause erosion and leaching of the soil nutrients, landing to low output. There may also be outbreak of pests and diseases which could wipe out a whole crop farm and livestock production. These random forces are the bad luck of farming and they manifest themselves in low yields, (Olayide, 1982).

The farmers have no access to credit facilities from the banks and other financial institutions because they are mostly poor farmers. This makes it difficult for the banks to give credit facilities to the farmers as aresult of lack of security in form of collaterals.

The following research questions were raised to be answered in the course of the study:

  1. What are the socio-economic characteristics of yam and cassava farmers in the study area?
  2. How can input usage and output produced by the farmers be determined?
  3. How can the gross margin analysis of yam and cassava enterprises be determined?
  4. What are the major constraints faced by yam and cassava enterprises?

 

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of the study was to carry out a comparative analysis of yam and cassava enterprises in Essien Udim Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. However, the specific objectives were to:

  1. Examine the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents in the study area.
  2. Determine the input usage and output produced by yam and cassava enterprises in the study area.
  3. Determine the gross margin analysis of yam and cassava enterprises in the study area.
  4. Determine the major constraints to yam and cassava production in the study area.

 

1.4     Hypotheses of the Study

The followinghypothesis were tested in the study.

Ho –   Factors like labour, quantity of planting materials, farm size, quantity of fertilizer, quantity of herbicides, capital inputs influencing yam/cassava production have no significant impact/effect on the output of yam/cassava

H1 –       Factors like labour, quantity of planting materials, farm size, quantity of fertilizer, quantity of herbicides and capital input influencing yam/cassava production have significant impact/effect on the output of yam/cassava.

 

1.5     Justification of the Study      

The study is expected to provide information that would equip yam and cassava producers and potential yam and cassava producers with the idea of what it takes to have a profitable yam and cassava enterprises. Also, the study would serve as an addition to existing knowledge and as a useful secondary information source to government, policy makers and future researchers in the country to help in agricultural planning. Students and researchers carrying out study on yam and cassava production would benefit adequately from the findings and recommendations made.

1.6     Organization of the Study

This work on Comparative Analysis of Yam and Cassava Enterprises in Essien Udim Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State ,“Contains Five Chapters.

Chapter one contains introduction, chapter two reviewed related literature, chapter three contains research methodology, chapter four deals with the presentation and discussion of results, chapter five contains summary, conclusion and recommendation.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF YAM AND CASSAVA ENTERPRISES IN ESSIEN UDIM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

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Yam and cassava production are major enterprises in agriculture and are becoming increasingly popular owing to greater appreciation of their food value. Yam and cassava are staple food crops, being the source of daily carbohydrate intake for a large populace of the world (FAO, 1990). The carbohydrates are mostly starchy in nature, found in storage organs, which may be enlarged roots or tubers (O’ Hair, 1990). Yam and cassava are the most important of all the arable food crops grown in the southern agro-ecological zones of Nigeria, closely followed, inorder of economic importance by maize and rice. They were regarded as food mainly for the poor, and hence played a very minor role in international trade. This misconception has lingered for so long because of lack of appreciation of the number of people who depend on these crops, and the number of lives that have been saved during famine or disasters by these crops (FAO, 1990). Yam and cassava are often the main dietary staple for low income consumers. They are grown by farmers as subsistence crops on small plots of land ranging from two to twenty hectares depending on the region. In Africa, yam and cassava are usually subsistence crops grown mainly as food, so the farmers keep sufficient to feed his family and sells only the surplus. However there is now a growing commercial market for them... agricultural engineering project topics

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF YAM AND CASSAVA ENTERPRISES IN ESSIEN UDIM LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

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  • CATEGORY : AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
  • ATTRIBUTE : Documentation Only
  • PAGES : 65 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
  • PRICE : ₦ 3,000.00

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