Certification Dedication Acknowledgment Table
of Contents List of Tables
ii iii iv v vi
the study 1
the problem 4
the Study 5
Research questions 6
Research Hypothesis 6
Significance of the study 7
Scope and limitations of the study 8
special terms 8
Review of related literature 11
Theoretical framework for the study 11
Over of Human Resources Management
Historical background 13
2.3.1 Motivation 13
2.3.2 Reward System 15
2.3.3 Wages and salaries 16
2.3.4 Incentives 17
2.3.5 Fringe benefits 18
2.3.6 Industrial relations 19
Current literature on theories postulated 21
2.4.1 Maslow‟s need hierarchy theory 21
2.4.2 Expectancy theory of motivation 22
2.4.3 Herzberg‟s Motivation – hygiene 23
LIST OF TABLE
Age distribution of respondents Table
4.2: Gender distribution
Table 4.3 Marital status of staff
Table 4.4 Perceived barriers to unionization
Table 4.5 Criteria for promotion and advancement
Number of people that left the hotel in the past year (relevant range)
Table 4.7 Management involvement in
training and development
Respondents opinion on whether payment is commensurate with efforts Table 4.9 Observed frequencies for Hypotheses one
Observed and Expected frequencies for hypotheses one Table 4.11 Observed frequencies for hypotheses two
Table 4.12 Observed and Expected frequencies for hypotheses two
Table 4.13 Observed frequencies for
Table 4.14 Observed and expected frequencies for
topic of the study is Human Resource Management in Hotel and Catering industry
(A case study of Royal Palace Hotel Enugu). The researcher used both the
primary and secondary data in the course of the study. The primary data was
collected through the instrument of questionnaires and observation. The
secondary data was sources through textbooks, journals, magazines and Libraries.
research design for the study was the survey research. The population of the
study was 82 employees of the establishment. The sample size of the study was
63 employees derived using the Yaro Yamani formula for the determination of
sample size. A total number of 63 questionnaires were distributed and returned
thereby having a hundred percent return rate. The researcher used sample
percentage and chi-square as statistical tool for the analysis.
study revealed that the majority of the workers in this establishment are
ignorant on pay determination method which shows that management does not
involve workers in the machinery or the mechanics of payment determination. The
workers role is reduced to that of a rigid adherence to rules and regulations.
researcher recommended among others that broad personnel policy study be
embraced by employers in the hotel industry.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Since the beginning of recorded time, people have travelled, and during
their travels, have needed shelter. This consequently encouraged the springing
up of some accommodation in form of inns and small hotels and subsequent larger
hospitality suites, to meet such needs. This thus hospitality is said to be the
Just after the civil war in 1970, there was a virtual absence of hotels
and especially, the well
known names in the international hotel industry in Nigeria. Not until the late
70‟s, during the oil boom era, did Nigeria start experiencing some
growth in her hotel industry. In recent years however, Nigeriahosting of
several major international events like the common wealth heads of government
meeting (CHOGM), All African games, carnivals, meeting including the visits of
two American presidents an other presidents with their entourage, has led to
the building of several more hotels in Nigeria, especially in the major cities.
This growth is not restricted to Nigeria alone, example, the American
food service industry in 1979 had 110 billion dollars of busing for meals away
from home and was infact the third largest industry
in the country in terms
of gross retail
sales, it employs
about 6 million people and had average of 125. 42 employees in 1995 and
yet still needs many additional employees every year.
Nigeria has since seen many important developments and changes in the
relative improvement in the standard of living of a vast majority of working
people. These improvements have come about as a result of many different
factors including greater national productivity, stronger growth of economy,
having more enlightened management and pressures from trade unions.
The contributions made by the hotel and catering industry to this general
rise in standard of living are considerable, providing essential and leisure
services, employment and wealth creation.
Hotel development in any country is a detailed process, requiring a high
level of pre- planning prior to,
during and after construction. There is still evidence in many places in
Nigeria that this pre-planning has not adequately been carried out, resulting
in some hotels that are
unable to meet today‟s and tomorrows ever-changing and increasing
customer needs, including the fact that demand far outstrips supply, with major
cities like Lagos having now shortages. Nevertheless, Tourism, of which the
hotel and catering industry is a principal element is said to be a potential
growth sector in Nigeria.
The conditions of employment of a large number of the industry‟s staff have not kept peace with
those enjoyed by
working people elsewhere,
in spite of
improvements within the catering industry itself. The reasons for the
slow rate of improvement
in the industry‟s condition of employment are considerable including an
understandable reluctance on the part of many proprietors and managers to
adjust labor earnings according to improvements in the industry. Another reason
could be that trade union movements exert little influence in most sectors of
the industry, since moreover most
people that make up the industry‟s workforce are people who are not prepared to
make a career out of the job.
conditions of the industry‟s staff are for most cases unattractive. There are intrinsic
problems which are unavoidable such as having to work long evenings and
weekends. Other problems however can certainly be removed or reduced by
determined management action. Such problems are staff reliance on tips,
ignorance of workers on methods of calculating pay and the distribution of service charges, and management‟s reluctance
to involve staff in matters that affect their working lives. Management should
therefore evolve a way of bringing out the best in these groups of ignored
members of our workforce.
In Nigeria, there are many organizations that provide catering services
and which by their nature can be termed hotels. It is estimated that there
exists about 550 hotels, inns and commercial guest houses in Nigeria by the
year 2008 that employs between 10 and 250 people in line with their sizes. It
is said that about 418 – 900
people were employed in 2003 worldwide.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In an industry in Africa where there seems to have been a continued
growth over the years, expertise is therefore expected to be limited and this
constitutes a problem.
There and other problems are what the study wishes to consider and make
recommendation where necessary. The problem reduction in experienced hands in
this industry in the third world, seem to be the case due to managers
reluctance to train its workers and employ able hands.
Another problem lies in the fact that most workers in the industry have
no clear cut channels to register their protests and grievances since
management usually stifles unionization agitation.
The third problem concerns the issue of how the basic payment and
benefits of workers is commensurate with their dedication to work and efforts.
As employers are less responsive to changes in the economy with respect to
adjustments of pay and benefit packages in line with economic growth as being experienced
in most developing countries today, including Nigeria, they are left with
employees whose dedication to work decreases; with huge reduction in their
morals and motivation to work.
We are also confronted with an environment where employees are usually
kept in the dark without being enlightened on things they have the right to
know. Example, payment
determination method, criteria for promotion (etc), but rather such
issues are based on the whims of management. This constitutes a problem.
The last problem is the general belief by most people that jobs in the
industry is one of last
resort which they can take up when they do not find a “better” job to do. This
thus discourages young people who may wish to have a career in the hotel
and catering industry.
Having identified some of the problems, this study intends to find
possible solutions to some of them.
THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
To this end, this study aims at assessing the
reasonability of all the entitlements due or payable to that part of the labor
force that works fully or partly in the hotel and catering industry. The
objectives of this study are thus.
examine the reasonability of other entitlements and benefits that is not part
of the basic payment.
assess the degree to which payment is commensurate with the efforts of
employees in this industry.
evaluate the extent to which payment and benefits in this industry are similar
to those of like-industries.