TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
1.6 Signification of the Study
1.7 Justification of the Study
1.8 Scope of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms
Theoretical Frame Work
Literation on the Subject Matter
Area of Study
Source of Data
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
Reliability of Instrument
Validity of Instrument
Limitation of the Study
Analysis, Finding and Discussion
Finding of the Study
Discussion of the Finding
Summary of Finding
Proposal for Further Studies
Studies of past literature on
tourists’ holiday, inbound and outbound, intention decision paves the way to
explore the Nigerian travel lifestyles and outbound tourism intentions.
Although most of the findings are helpful to understand the travellers market,
the related study of Nigerian travellers is limited. This study intends to fill
the gap by examining the relationship between travel lifestyles and outbound
tourism intentions of Nigeria. Hence, this will be significantly helpful for
marketers in developing positioning strategies in order to provide a total
tourism experience for the potential travellers. While studies have examined
people's understanding of climate change and its relationship to tourism, these
focus largely on developed country populations. Much future tourism growth will
come from developing countries following economic development; often countries
where climate change will be strongly felt. Do tourists from developing
countries have the same knowledge gaps about travel, tourism, and climate
change as in the developed world? Will behavioral change policies be successful
in encouraging more environmentally friendly approaches to climate change and
tourism in developing countries? This research presents findings from 20
in-depth interviews with active Nigerian tourists, analyzing their
understanding of climate change, the links known, or not, between their travel
and climate change, and their willingness to change their tourism patterns.
Understanding of climate change was limited and there was conceptual confusion.
Participants did not view their own travel as a cause of climate change and
many were embedded in air travel practice. Participants were unwilling to
change their tourism patterns to reduce their contribution to climate change.
Significant structural barriers limit low carbon tourism travel in Nigeria (and
other developing countries), including reliability, availability safety, and
speed. Behavioral change will be difficult to achieve.
1.1 Background of Study
Nigeria in this era are raised in an
environment that offers a wide and increasing range of travel opportunities. As
on 2013, approximately half of the holiday makers’ population in Malaysia
consisted of young people (Euromonitor International, 2014). Due to low-cost
carriers become the common travelling mode of transportation, the ease of
information searching and tourism products purchasing via World Wide Web,
travelling is at its most accessible ever and thus, the increasing freedom to
travel. So, it is a fact that today’s Nigerians’ attitudes towards holiday
making are very positive. Although young travellers have a strong desire to
travel, the cost, affordability and accessibility will need to be assessed to
turn potential into actual demand (Glover, 2010). Therefore, further study
needs to be carried out to investigate their travel behaviour as suggested by
Tsiotsu and Ratten (2010). Moreover, Aziz and Ariffin (2009) suggested that
behaviouristic study is required to understand the Nigerian travellers market
as pleasure travel is expanding in Nigeria. They also remark that it is crucial
to investigate how people make their travel decisions and what they enjoy
brief, travelling has become easier and more affordable than it was before.
These changes are contributing to the age of travellers getting younger. Hence,
it is not deniable that young travellers are an increasingly important segment
in both tourism businesses and studies. Despite an increasing interest in the
market size of young travellers, economic potential and their desire to travel,
relatively little is known about their travel lifestyles and intentions to
overseas travel. Therefore, this study aims to provide insights of Nigerian’ travel
lifestyles and travel intentions.
1.2 Statement of Problem
There are so many outbound tourism in
Nigeria and factors hindering the successful implement of Nigerian intention to
tourism, the rate of inbound tourism seems to be significant low to the
outbound tourism in Nigeria which signify that the Nigerian travel lifestyle
with the hospitality industry is far lacking from the standard ought to be. The
following reasons are the core issue seen by the researcher.
tends to visit other country for tourism then other nations visits ours.
government seems to do nothing concerning the inbound and outbound of our
explicitly, review the tourism intention of Nigerian, because from the trends
of Nigerian outbound relatively to the inbounds tell me that there is no intention
for tourism in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
As mentioned in the research problem,
there are several studies (Cai, L., 2002; Cha et al., 1995; Hanqin and Lam,
1999, Jamrozy and Uysal, 1994; Josiam et al., 1999; Kozak 2002; Pyo et al, 1989;
Smeaton et al., 1998; Yuan and McDonald, 1990) which have examined the
motivations of outbound tourism in several countries, but there has been a lack
of attention paid by researchers to the study of the motivation of Nigerian
outbound tourism. Furthermore, there has also been a lack of attention given by
researchers to the study of travel lifestyle of outbound tourism. Therefore,
the main aim of this study is to explore the motivations (explicit and
implicit) of Nigerian outbound tourism.
project work aims at determining and highlighting the trends on Nigerian
outbound tourism and travel lifestyle. The study will also provide exploration
and reason for Nigerian tourism intention.
broad aim consists of the following subsidiary objectives:
develop the Nigerian’ profile covering personal characteristics, travel
lifestyles and their intentions to overseas travel.
assess the 'push' and 'pull' motivations (explicit and implicit) that drive Nigerian
tourists to go abroad.
examine the nature of the relationship between push and pull factors (explicit
and implicit) in travel lifestyle.
examine the differences in motivations of tourists according to their
demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, income and education).
examine the relationship between Nigerian culture and tourism motivations
(explicit and implicit) and its intention (Tourism).
examine the relationship between Nigerians travel lifestyles and travel
intentions for outbound tourism.
to test the influence of tourists' motives (explicit and implicit) on
achieve these aims and objectives, a quantitative approach will be used.
1.4 Research Question
research work is guided with same research question, which will be administered
and distributed among the researchers area of study which are the respondents
to this research work and these comprise the travelers and the management.
Sample research question are:
are the intention for you traveling out to overseas travel?
is the 'push' and 'pull' motivations (explicit and implicit) that drive Nigerian
tourists to go abroad?
is the nature of the relationship between push and pull factors (explicit and
implicit) in travel lifestyle?
is the differences in motivations of tourists according to their demographic
variables (age, gender, marital status, income and education)?
is the relationship between Nigerian culture and tourism motivations (explicit
and implicit) and its intention (Tourism)?
relationship is between Nigerians travel lifestyles and travel intentions for
is the influence of your motives (explicit and implicit) on destination