Studies of past literature on
tourists’ holiday, inbound and outbound, intention decision paves the way to
explore the Nigerian travel lifestyles and outbound tourism intentions.
Although most of the findings are helpful to understand the travellers market,
the related study of Nigerian travellers is limited. This study intends to fill
the gap by examining the relationship between travel lifestyles and outbound
tourism intentions of Nigeria. Hence, this will be significantly helpful for
marketers in developing positioning strategies in order to provide a total
tourism experience for the potential travellers. While studies have examined
people''s understanding of climate change and its relationship to tourism, these
focus largely on developed country populations. Much future tourism growth will
come from developing countries following economic development; often countries
where climate change will be strongly felt. Do tourists from developing
countries have the same knowledge gaps about travel, tourism, and climate
change as in the developed world? Will behavioral change policies be successful
in encouraging more environmentally friendly approaches to climate change and
tourism in developing countries? This research presents findings from 20
in-depth interviews with active Nigerian tourists, analyzing their
understanding of climate change, the links known, or not, between their travel
and climate change, and their willingness to change their tourism patterns.
Understanding of climate change was limited and there was conceptual confusion.
Participants did not view their own travel as a cause of climate change and
many were embedded in air travel practice. Participants were unwilling to
change their tourism patterns to reduce their contribution to climate change.
Significant structural barriers limit low carbon tourism travel in Nigeria (and
other developing countries), including reliability, availability safety, and
speed. Behavioral change will be difficult to achieve.
1.1 Background of Study
Nigeria in this era are raised in an
environment that offers a wide and increasing range of travel opportunities. As
on 2013, approximately half of the holiday makers’ population in Malaysia
consisted of young people (Euromonitor International, 2014). Due to low-cost
carriers become the common travelling mode of transportation, the ease of
information searching and tourism products purchasing via World Wide Web,
travelling is at its most accessible ever and thus, the increasing freedom to
travel. So, it is a fact that today’s Nigerians’ attitudes towards holiday
making are very positive. Although young travellers have a strong desire to
travel, the cost, affordability and accessibility will need to be assessed to
turn potential into actual demand (Glover, 2010). Therefore, further study
needs to be carried out to investigate their travel behaviour as suggested by
Tsiotsu and Ratten (2010). Moreover, Aziz and Ariffin (2009) suggested that
behaviouristic study is required to understand the Nigerian travellers market
as pleasure travel is expanding in Nigeria. They also remark that it is crucial
to investigate how people make their travel decisions and what they enjoy
brief, travelling has become easier and more affordable than it was before.
These changes are contributing to the age of travellers getting younger. Hence,
it is not deniable that young travellers are an increasingly important segment
in both tourism businesses and studies. Despite an increasing interest in the
market size of young travellers, economic potential and their desire to travel,
relatively little is known about their travel lifestyles and intentions to
overseas travel. Therefore, this study aims to provide insights of Nigerian’ travel
lifestyles and travel intentions.
1.2 Statement of Problem
There are so many outbound tourism in
Nigeria and factors hindering the successful implement of Nigerian intention to
tourism, the rate of inbound tourism seems to be significant low to the
outbound tourism in Nigeria which signify that the Nigerian travel lifestyle
with the hospitality industry is far lacking from the standard ought to be. The
following reasons are the core issue seen by the researcher.
tends to visit other country for tourism then other nations visits ours.
government seems to do nothing concerning the inbound and outbound of our
explicitly, review the tourism intention of Nigerian, because from the trends
of Nigerian outbound relatively to the inbounds tell me that there is no intention
for tourism in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
As mentioned in the research problem,
there are several studies (Cai, L., 2002; Cha et al., 1995; Hanqin and Lam,
1999, Jamrozy and Uysal, 1994; Josiam et al., 1999; Kozak 2002; Pyo et al, 1989;
Smeaton et al., 1998; Yuan and McDonald, 1990) which have examined the
motivations of outbound tourism in several countries, but there has been a lack
of attention paid by researchers to the study of the motivation of Nigerian
outbound tourism. Furthermore, there has also been a lack of attention given by
researchers to the study of travel lifestyle of outbound tourism. Therefore,
the main aim of this study is to explore the motivations (explicit and
implicit) of Nigerian outbound tourism.
project work aims at determining and highlighting the trends on Nigerian
outbound tourism and travel lifestyle. The study will also provide exploration
and reason for Nigerian tourism intention.
broad aim consists of the following subsidiary objectives:
develop the Nigerian’ profile covering personal characteristics, travel
lifestyles and their intentions to overseas travel.
assess the ''push'' and ''pull'' motivations (explicit and implicit) that drive Nigerian
tourists to go abroad.
examine the nature of the relationship between push and pull factors (explicit
and implicit) in travel lifestyle.
examine the differences in motivations of tourists according to their
demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, income and education).
examine the relationship between Nigerian culture and tourism motivations
(explicit and implicit) and its intention (Tourism).
examine the relationship between Nigerians travel lifestyles and travel
intentions for outbound tourism.
to test the influence of tourists'' motives (explicit and implicit) on
achieve these aims and objectives, a quantitative approach will be used.
1.4 Research Question
research work is guided with same research question, which will be administered
and distributed among the researchers area of study which are the respondents
to this research work and these comprise the travelers and the management.
Sample research question are:
are the intention for you traveling out to overseas travel?
is the ''push'' and ''pull'' motivations (explicit and implicit) that drive Nigerian
tourists to go abroad?
is the nature of the relationship between push and pull factors (explicit and
implicit) in travel lifestyle?
is the differences in motivations of tourists according to their demographic
variables (age, gender, marital status, income and education)?
is the relationship between Nigerian culture and tourism motivations (explicit
and implicit) and its intention (Tourism)?
relationship is between Nigerians travel lifestyles and travel intentions for
is the influence of your motives (explicit and implicit) on destination
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
researcher formed some of the hypothesis which will be tested to support this
study. The hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significance using the
t-test method and correlation analysis.
research hypothesis are as follows.
There is no significance relationship between travel life style and the out bound
tourism in Nigeria.
There is no significance relationship between travel life style and the out
bound tourism in Nigeria.
Nigerian outbound tourism intention has potential positive effect to travel
lifestyle to tourism
Nigerian outbound tourism intention has potential positive effect to travel
lifestyle to tourism
1.6 Signification of the Study
This research aims to investigate the travel
lifestyle of Nigerian outbound tourism. The Nigerian outbound tourism market is
recognised as one of the biggest in the world in terms of the amount of Nigeria
expenditures in outbound tourism (Hashim, 1997). However, little research has
been conducted on the travel lifestyle behind Nigerian outbound tourism,
especially the implicit motives. The researcher therefore aims to contribute in
it contributes to the literature of tourism motivations of outbound tourism,
using push and pull factors, by investigating the unique context of Nigeria.
studies have investigated the tourism motivations of outbound tourism by Christians
(e.g. Cha et al., 1995; Hanqin and Lam, 1999; Jamrozy and Uysal, 1994; Jang and
Cai, 2002; Josiam et al., 1999, Kozak, 2002, Yuan and McDonald (1990). There
has been a lack of attention among the researchers to investigate the
motivations of outbound tourists (especially implicit motives) in the country.
Secondly, one novelty for this research
relates to its study of the implicit motivations for Nigerian outbound tourism.
Implicit here relates to sex, alcohol and other motivations for tourism.
Previous studies have customarily focused on explicit motivations as the
primary motives for tourism (Baloglu and Uyssal, 1996; Bogari et al., 2003; Cha
et al., 1995; Jang and Cai, 2002; Josiam et al., 1999; Kim and Lee, 2002; Kozak
2002; Pyo et al, 1989; Smeaton et al, 1998; Turnbull and Usal, 1995; Usal and
Jurowshi, 1994; Yoon and Uysal, 2005;You et al., 2002; Yuan and McDonald,
1990). However, explicit motivations are not necessarily the only motives that
drive the tourist to travel. Possibly there are other motives (implicit) that
tourist does not want to reveal for various reasons. These reasons might be
cultural, traditional or personal.
1.7 Justification of the Study
want to justify this research work based on the objectives and the significance
of this research work, what is within its coverage, this research work is with
no doubt necessary to be carried out. Because if done will greatly highlight
the importance creating a sustainable tourism, intension that will contribute
to the development of the nation and maintain an average inbound and outbound
1.8 Scope of the Study
research work will be covering Nigerian traveling lifestyle and outbound
tourism in Nigerian, also, the tourism intention in Nigeria. Well due to the
large number of travelers, the researcher will use the result and analysis
gotten from the Nnamdi international airport Abuja for this research work.
1.9 Limitation of the Study
One of the limitation to this research
work is the cost of performing/researching this project work, the researcher
encountered a lot of challenges as well as opposition which ranges from
financial constraints, time factor. This factors in their own ways, slowed down
the speedy progress of this work that resulted to the researcher not being able
to finish the research work on time as is required
Also, within the area of study the researcher was
faced with some other forms of constrains that contributed to the limitation of
this researcher work, like accessibility to data, information and facts
concerning the present study due to some reasons or the other, some not willing
to give out information that it is to be within the workers.
1.10 Conceptual Framework