The study was designed to find
out the “Effect of Human Relations on Organizational Productivity in IMF , Uyo.
To provide a theoretical base for the study, a review was made on the concept
of human relations, development of human relations, importance of human
relations in an organization as well as the qualities and principles of a good
human relations practice. A sample size of 50 respondents from a population of
500, comprising of top, middle and low level management was used. A set of
questionnaire which was divided into 5 variables was used to obtain data from
the respondents; the use of mean score which is 3.00 as cut off point was
utilized. One of the research questions asked was whether human relations is
instrumental to the attainment of organizational goal. The researcher collected
data and interpreted them after which chi-square was used to test the earlier
stated hypothesis. Lastly, summary, conclusion and recommendations were made.
One of the recommendations made was that managers should maintain good human
relations so that goals can be achieved. Findings from the study revealed that
the relationship that exists among workers in organization, the effectiveness
of human relations in an organization can enhance workers productivity,
employees morale can be boosted on the job when there is a cordial relationship
between the organization and its employees, and good human relations enhances
job satisfaction in achieving organizational goals. Based on the findings, the
researcher recommended that, low level workers should strive to perform better,
to justify the good human relations and motivation existing in the
organization, management staff and other senior workers in the organization
should create conducive atmosphere to facilitate good human relations and
teamwork for greater productivity. Also the organization should educate their
workers on the importance of good human relations through workshops and
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval Page - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Content - - - - - - - - - vii
of the Study - - - - - - 1
of the Problem - - - - - - 3
of the Study - - - - - - - 4
of Hypothesis - - - - - - 5
of the Study - - - - - - 5
the Study - - - - - - - 6
of the Study - - - - - - 7
Background of the Case Study - - - 7
of Terms - - - - - - - 17
Conceptual Meanings of Human Relations - - - 19
of Human Relations - - - - 21
Studies and Human Relations - - - 23
of the Hawthorne Experiment - - - 29
Relations in an Organization - - - - 34
of Good Human Relations Practice
in an Organization - - - - - - - 40
2.7 Principles of Good Human Relations Practice
in an Organization - - - - - - - 41
Design - - - - - - - 46
Population - - - - - - - 46
Size and Sampling Technique - - - - 46
of Gathering Data - - - - - - 47
for the Method Used - - - - 47
of Data Analysis - - - - - - 48
for the Instrument Used - - - - 49
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Presentation and Analysis - - - - - 50
Hypothesis - - - - - - - 62
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
of Findings - - - - - - - 65
Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 66
Recommendations - - - - - - - 67
References - - - - - - - - - 69
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The practice of Human Resource Management in its quest
towards achieving success through people utilizes array of activities concerned
with all aspects of how people are employed and managed in organizations. This
approach tends to understand how psychological and social processes interacts
with the work situation to influence performance. Human Relations is the first
major approach to emphasis information work relationship and work satisfaction.
Thus, Ezinwa and Agomon (1993) asserted that human relations encompasses the
art and practice of using systematic knowledge of human behaviour to achieve
organization and personal objectives. Organizations are made up of individuals,
the immediate environment and the public that contributes to the success or
failure of the organization.
Onasanya (1990) in similar vain believes that human
relations, being a behavoural science which deals with inter-personal,
inter-work group and management of employees relationship in a social system
seems to be the only tool for organizational productivity and development. The
reason is not far fetched since efforts of Elton Mayo and his research
colleagues in the 1920s on behavioural approach to management succeeded to have
yielded much more factual analysis in terms of the chicken-egg relationship
between human relations and productivity in an organization.
Hicks and Byers (1982) in their contributions defined human
relations as “the integration of people into a work situation in a way that
motivates them to work together, productively and cooperatively with economic,
psychological and social satisfaction”. This further confirms that paying
attention to the human elements enhances greater productivity and performance.
Human relations is a definitive management function which
helps to establish and maintain mutual line of communication, understanding,
acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its human. It involves
the management to keep opinions, defines, and as well emphasizes the
responsibility of management to serve the human interest.
However, human relations has long attained professional
status but it has been discovered that most organizations are not taking full
advantage of its efficient utilization when dealing with their publics due to
ignorance or improper understanding as to the effectiveness of the discipline
to organizational success. Thus effect the need for this study in order to
highlight the effect of human relations practice on organizational
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Inspite of the glaring importance of human relations in the
realization of organizational goals, one still hears complaint of poor
performance of both employees and employers in the organization even till this
day. Beside, employees can resign from their appointments as a result of
executive’s harshness and autocracy, employees having their appointment
terminated due to poor performance or failure to perform, the organization may
fold up because of low productivity, poor employees and employers relationship,
inability to meet the organization’s set targets or mismanagement.
It is as a result of these trends that make it necessary for
this study to address the following questions:
How effective is the practice of Human Relations system to
the attainment of organizational goals?
Does Human Relations has any impact on worker’s performance?
Does Human Relations determine employees retention in the
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is
Find out the effects of human
relations’ practice towards the
achievement of organizational goals.
Examine whether human relations has
an impact on worker’s performance.
Establish whether human relations is
determinant of employees retention in the organization.
OF THE HYPOTHESIS
following hypothesis are formulated for this study:
H0: Human Relations does not have effect on workers’ productivity.
H1: Human Relations have effect on workers’ productivity.
OF THE STUDY
view of the constant struggle by the organizations to balance both the
employee’s needs and the organizational needs for the effective actualization
of set goals, it is expected that the study would be of good benefits to
executives, managers, future business establishment and future researchers.
Similarly, the study will help organizations to improve on implementing human
relations policies so as to enable them control problems facing them from such
it will serve as eye-opener to most organizations who are yet to embrace the
system, thereby enlighten workers (industrial and groups) about the concept of
human relations and the effect on productivity. It is hoped that the study
would also help executives to improve on the need for good human relations with
workers and clients to improve the organization’s performance.
addition, the adoption of this new approach to firm’s advancement will improve
employees performance, productivity, efficiency as well as employees attitude
the study will also be of help to those who may want to research into the area
by serving as a reference material for future investigation.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
study centres on the effect of Human Relations on organizational productivity
using IMF, Uyo as a case study. The study covers sizeable staff of the
institute drawn from the various cadre of management (form top management to
subordinates) in order to ensure a more comprehensive and detail examination.
The staff includes both the male and female sex of different ages and level of
OF THE STUDY
following problems affect the effective conduct of this study:
the time for the study is quite long, but academic demand such as preparation
for tests, assignments and paper presentations took a lot of time for one to go
out and source for information.
Constraint: This was another limitation which made
it uneasy for the materials to be easily assessed at the appropriate time.
Bottle-Neck: In addition, stringent rules and
regulations guiding the release of information in the institute made it almost impossible for one to obtained
details about the organization.
interaction of two or more people within some mutually recognized power
relationship for some common purpose, be it formal or informal.
A measure of how efficiently resources are used as input to bring output in
goods and services with minimum time cost.
A person engaged in an employment under appointment and receives a reward in
return for services rendered.
A collection of individuals who share a sense of common identity contributing
towards the achievement of a common goal.
Relations: A behavioural management approach
that attempt to understand and explain how psychological and social process
interacts with formal aspect of the work situation to influence performance.
A planned effort of effective enquiry which seeks to establish improved
understanding between both management and employees.
A state of disagreement between individuals or group against another person or
organization which resulted from a clash of interest.
These are believes in what is best or good for the organization and what should
or ought to happen.