examines the relationship between cultural tourism and community development in
Umuagbom Community in Imo State. However from the study certain dimensions
where determined on cultural tourism and community development via New Yam
Festival, Age Grade in correlation with infrastructure, educational
advancement, social amenities. Thus, with the necessary information collected
from the study department through survey method, questionnaire and personal
observation. The sample size 382 was determine using Taro Yemen's formula @
0.05 level of significant.
Background of The Study
Community development has
played a very vital role in some communities in Nigeria by eliminating
suffering of like illiteracy and disease in the life of people, thus improving
the standard of living of the people within the community and have also
inculcate a sense of citizenship and spirit of civil consciousness among the
members of the community.
Community development helps
to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities, by
enabling its members to establish and maintain co-operative and harmonious
relationship by contributing meaningfully to the achievement of the national
Community development have
eradicate abject poverty in Nigeria through the provision of social amenities
like water, roads bridge, electricity and hospitals. As it also seek to empower
individuals and group of people with the skills they need to effect changes
within their community.
According to Okiy (2013)
community development is a basis for economic development and information is an
important ingredient in development process. People of the community whether
literate or not should have access to any kind of information which will help
them to become capable and productive in their social and political obligation,
to become better informed citizens generally.
According to Adekola (1997) when he
asserted that community development has always been a part and parcel of
African culture. And in the African society, community development has to do
with working together as members of a
particular community to achieve common goals that are designed to benefit the
As Yahya (2009) also opined
that when a community is not developed, there will be vices that will pull such
society down and lack of development has a positive correlation with the
neglect of rural areas. Rural neglect brings negative consequences such as
exodus of rural dwellers to urban areas, with resulting problems of
unemployment, crime, prostitution, child labour, insecurity, money laundering,
bribery, poverty proliferation of shanty living areas, spread of diseases and
overstretching of the facilities and infrastructure in the urban areas.
From the review of the
community development and its trend by previous research work, the researcher
can conclude by saying that community development is the grass root to
development and sustainability to the community, through which community growth
There are need to drive
development to undeveloped community by uplifting the community culture and
values among the nation in order to avoid all these vices.
Culture tends to standout in
Nigeria tourism sector as Nigeria houses about 375 ethnic groups and each of
these ethnic group has her own cultural heritage which describe the total way
of life of the particular group. Before
the coming of the Western culture, importance was attached to the participation
in any cultural festival like Iriji ndi Ngor Okpala (New yam festival). In
those days, the Iriji ndi Ngor Okpala has become a national religious
institution and its anniversaries are celebrated with grand festivities. The
mysteries connected with it are held sacred and inviolable.
Nowadays, these beliefs have
changed, people have not been participating in Iriji ndi Ngor Okpala Festival
especially, and this is due to some factors that are connected with the coming
of the Western culture and the various religious beliefs.
The term Festival is simply
defined as “THEME PUBLIC CELEBRATION”. This term is rich in tradition and
meaning. Nigeria’s cultural heritage is
woven from threads of history and diversity, legend and conquest. The country
aptly described as the ‘Giant of Africa’ is richly endowed with ecological and
cultural resources, which are of universal recognition. The richness and diversity
of the Nigeria culture is a manifestation of the socio-cultural differences of
the over 250 ethnic groups in the country.
There are many traditional
festivals observed in the State (IMO). Each community has different festivals
celebrated in honor of ancient deities or to mark an important event in the
history of the area. There are different festivals to usher in the harvest
season, the most popular being the Ahiajoku Festival, which is observed in all
the farming communities.
These are list of festivals
within the state.
Iwakwa of Ihitte Afor Ukwu – Every 3 years
Inunkwu of Oparanadim
Iriji ndi Ngor Okpala (New yam festival) – every August 15th
Iwa –Akwa performed by Okponkume community
of these festivals take place within the last quarter of every year.
The research will focus on
the Iriji ndi Ngor Okpala(New yam festival) as its primary point of view, since
this festival is common among other community across the state (Imo).
1.2 Statement of Research
There are numbers of critical
issues as concern the development of tourism in the development particularly in
Africa, which have call into questioning the efficacy of tourism as a tools for
community development and socio-economic .
These issues have also been identified
among the people of Umuagbom community of Imo State. Which includes poor
educational background, lack of good road, lack of social amenities, cultural
and environmental degradation and loss of cultural identity.
And due to these problems, the researcher
have been able to know note that the people of Umuagbom community haven't been
able to utilize the cultural heritage of their community and most of these
cultural heritage are just been made known only to the nearby community and
villages, as this has limited the celebration of their cultural heritage within
close community and not beyond.
Therefore, the researcher has
identify this problem among the people and community of Umuagbom of Imo state,
and thereby seek to carry out this research so as to highlight cultural tourism
and its efficiency in community development.
Figure 1.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK