This research study was aimed at identifying the
impact of Computer Based Instruction on the Learning effectiveness of the
Hearing impaired Pupils.
A descriptive survey design was adopted while
questionnaire demanding specific information were posed for the hearing
Data collected from respondents were used for the
study. A total number of two hundred (200) respondents comprising one hundred
(100) males and one hundred (100) females were selected for the study.
They were included through the stratified sampling
techniques. Data collected were analyzed using frequency and mean while hypotheses
was tested using the independent t-test statistical tool at 0.05 level of
significance. The result of the findings revealed that most teachers of the
hearing impaired pupils have not fully equipped or engaged themselves with new
technology because they were not exposed to training that incorporate CBI into
the teaching of the hearing impaired. It was indicated that CBI is relevant and
effective to bring about high academic standard of the hearing impaired in
Basis Science. The researcher therefore recommended that government should
provide adequate CBI equipment for our hearing impaired schools, and train the
teachers regularly on the use of CBI. Provide adequate supply of power because
it was agreed that insufficient power supply have caused hindrance in the
effectiveness of the hearing impaired, employ skilled technology teachers that
can handle CBI effectively for better academic performance of the hearing
impaired pupils in our special schools in Lagos State.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents v
List of Tables vi
Chapter One: Introduction 1
of the Study 1
of the Problem 4
of Study 5
of the Study 6
of the Study 8
of Study 8
of Terms 9
Chapter Two: Literature Reviewed 10
2.0 Introduction 10
Effectiveness on the Hearing Impaired Children Based on
Convention Methods of Teaching 11
Effectiveness of the Hearing Impaired Children Based of
Computer Instructional Methods 18
of improving the Learning of the Hearing Impaired Children
with the uses of Computer-Based
between the Learning Effectiveness when using
Computer -Based Instruction and the
Methods on the Hearing Impaired 26
challenges faced by the Hearing Impaired Pupils in Learning
Basic Sciences 31
of the Literature Review 36
Chapter Three: Research Methodology 38
3.0 Introduction 38
3.2 Population of
the study 38
3.3 Sample Size
and Sampling Technology 39
3.4 Instrumentation 39
3.5 Validity of
3.6 Reliability of
the Instrument 40
3.7 Procedure for
Data Collection 41
3.8 Data Analysis 41
Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Discussion 42
4.1 Result of
4.2 Testing of
4.3 Discussion of
Research Finding 50
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and
of the study 54
for further Studies 58
Appendix I Questionnaire 64
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Level of Learning Effectiveness of the Hearing Impaired
based on Conventional Methods of teaching 42
Table 2 Improvement of the Learning of Hearing
Impaired in basic
Table 3 Relationship Between Computer-Based
Teaching Effectiveness of
Table 4 Relationship Between the Use of
Conventional methods for Hearing
Table 5 Challenges Faced by Hearing Impaired
Learning Basic Science 48
Table 6 Difference Between Computer –Based
Methods to Teach the Hearing
to the Study
Education is a key to the development
of an individual’s potential, nation’s prospects and the world as a whole.
Education has become a fundamental tool for developing economics of the nations
of the world. It is on this premise that the United Nations (UN) mandated that
education should be part of the privileges and rights the citizenry or any
member of the society should enjoy (Olutayo, 2000).
To date, in an attempt to ensure an equal educational
opportunities for all, there is still one un-served population that unlike some
groups, is hard to identify, place and programme in public schools. They are
the handicapped children. Handicapped children are referred to as special
children or exceptional children and this points to the importance of the
different kind of care they need (Oyebola, 1997). There has been a conscious
move towards the integration of handicapped children into regular school
programmes, not only in Nigeria
but in most countries of the world. During the world congress of the council
for exceptional children (CEC) held in Stilling, Scotland a lot of emphasis was
placed on mainstreaming.
There are three types of impairment which are physical
and health impairment, visual impairment and hearing impairment, but this
research work will emphasis on hearing impairment and how performances of
hearing impairment students can be improved through Computer Based
Instructions. The condition of the auditory system
which makes it either total or partially defective is referred to as hearing
impairment (Okuoyibo, Oyewunmi and Adediran, 1998). Hearing appeals to sense of
hearing, this implies that hearing is the ability of a child to hear sound
through the ear, the auditory nerves and the auditory cortex. Hearing
impairment is inability of a person to hear sound.
The use of computer has brought improvement to the
life of mankind in all human endeavours most especially in education. Computers
are now used in education to monitor students achievements, teach students and
also as instructional media to assists in teaching in the classroom. This use
of computer in education is referred to as Computer-based instruction. Omoniyi
(2003) refers to Computer Based Instruction (CBI) as a common use of computer
in education that computer acts as a teacher. The computer can be used to
provide interactive lessons in which case, the software is programmed by
computer experts for a particular subject area and the students are tutored
while executing the programme.
Omoniyi gave five categories of computers-based
instruction which are drill and practice, tutorials, instructional
stimulations, instructional games and problem-solving. Computer based
instruction improves instruction for students with disabilities because
students receive immediate feedback and do not continue to practice wrong
skills. Computer captures the students’ attention because the programmes are
interactive and engages the students’ spirits of competences to increase their
performance. CBI makes students to learn at his own pace (Jefferson,
The research work focus on the effectiveness on
computer based instruction on hearing impaired students, many researchers such
as Ralph et al (2002) found that computer based instruction improved learning
achievement while some agreed that computer based instruction alone is not
enough but it supplements conventional method.
Conventional or traditional method of teaching is not
sufficient but rather complementing it with computer based instructions. In a
research conducted on learning of disabled such as mentally retarded, hearing
impaired, emotionally disturbed and language disorder students indicates that their
achievement level is greater with computer based instruction than traditional
method of teaching. Mevarch and Rich (1985) compared the effects of CBI on participants
and found that there was higher performance in learning outcomes among the
pupils than those who were taught with conventional method.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The problems inherent in the learning effectiveness of
the hearing impaired pupils at the special pre-primary and primary schools and
indeed at other levels of Nigerian system of education cannot be overemphasized
and underrated. This is because children who do not hear like other children,
do not have high or positive academic achievement due to their handicap
condition. It is a statement of fact, that hearing is one of the sense organs
of the body, and it is used to learn in school. Now, students or pupils who
have hearing impairment, find it absolutely difficult to learn because they do
not hear what the teacher is saying, what the learner says in the classroom,
neither do they hear the interactions of their fellow students/pupils in the
classroom. The above problems put together, have prevented the pupils who have
difficulties in hearing, from performing better in school like their counter
parts who hear well.
The problem of the learning impaired pupils in our
primary schools have been aggravated due to the fact that most of handicapped
schools of our primary schools do not have the facilities to assist these hearing
impaired pupils in school. For instance, lack of computer-based instruction and
functional computers to carry out these instructions in order to help the
learning impaired, has worsened the learning conditions of the hearing impaired
pupils, and thus, their academic outcomes have also been affected negatively.
The above identified problems, gave rise to the
investigation of the effects of computer based instruction on the learning
effectiveness of the hearing impaired pupils in Lagos State
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to determine the effects
of Computer-Based Instruction on the learning effectiveness of learning
impaired pupils in Lagos
State special primary
schools. Specifically, the study shall:
out the learning effectiveness of the hearing impaired children using the
conventional teaching methods.
the learning effectiveness of the hearing impaired children using the
Computer-Based Instructional method.
ways in which the learning of the hearing impaired children can be improved
using the computer based instruction.
the relationship between the use of computer based instruction and the
conventional teaching methods for the hearing impaired students.
out the challenges faced by hearing impaired pupils in learning basic science.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings and recommendations of this study would
be beneficial to the following individuals:
would gain more knowledge as a result of the findings and recommendations
raised in this study. This is because, to teachers, especially those teaching
sciences, this study will put them in the right track and be an added knowledge
to what they already know in the subjects they teach especially in the area of
computer-based instruction in the school. It would help them to teach the
hearing impaired group of students effectively.
a result of this study, students would be exposed to computer-based teaching
and learning processes in the school, as the recommendations and findings would
help them to understand the nitty gritty of using computer to learn.
would no doubt, be able to properly be in the position to know the importance
of teaching their hearing impaired children through the use of computer. This
study will make parents to appreciate the need to use the computer to assist
children/wards who have hearing problems and make them to learn like every
other child even at home.
society will not be left out in benefiting from the recommendations and
findings of this study. This is because the members of the larger society would
be able to know vividly the importance of the use of computer in assisting or
teaching the child who does not hear in order to make him/her to learn like
others in the school.
1.5 Research Questions
is the learning effectiveness of the hearing impaired children using the
conventional teaching methods?
what extent can the learning effectiveness of the hearing impaired children using
the Computer-Based Instructional method be examined?
which ways can the learning of the hearing impaired children be improved using
the computer based instruction?
(4) What is the relationship between the
effects in use of computer based instruction and the conventional teaching
methods for the hearing impaired students?
(5) What are the challenges faced by hearing
impaired pupils in learning basic science?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses have been
formulated to guide this study. Each hypothesis is tested at P < 0.05
level of significance.
(1) There will be no significant difference
between computer-based instruction and the conventional teaching methods among
the hearing impaired students.
(2) There is no significant difference on the
mean effects in learning among hearing impaired students taught with computer
assisted instruction and conventional method.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study covered the effects of
computer-based instruction on the learning effectiveness of hearing impaired
pupils in special primary schools located in Mainland Local Government Area of
Lagos State. Finance, time and sourcing materials for the study would be an
hindrance to the timely completion of the study.