Background to the Study
Crude oil is one among other natural resources
endowment in a nation by nature. Natural resources are often regarded as free gifts
of nature. All over the world, different countries are endowed differently with
different resources, both in quality and quantity, to some less and others in
abundance. Nigeria is one among these countries that is richly blessed with
vast natural resources, such as: forests, lands, fresh and salt water, sands,
coal, Iron-ore, natural gas, aluminum, non- mineral energy source of solar,
crude oil which is our subject matter among others.
Crude oil was first
discovered in united state (US) in 1859, which was sold on a large scale in the
1860s. In Nigeria, the search for crude oil started within 1905 and 1908 by the
Nigerian Bitumen Corporation (NBC) who on their search found 16 shallow wells,
confirming a line of oil seepage in the Eastern Dohomey Basin in Okitipupa,
Western Region of Nigeria. The NBC could not go far with its search due to the
outbreak of the First World War in 1914 which distorted their activities.
However, after the
war, the Roral/Dutch Company took over and continued with the search from Ondo
State to Abia State and finally narrows down their search to Niger Delta Region
where they first discovered oil in large commercial quantity in 1956 at Oloibiri
specifically in the present Bayelsa State. Nigeria oil hit. The international
market in 1958 with approximately 5,000 barrels per day. Nigeria produces about
30% of the total oil
production in the Africa region. As of September 2004, she was ranked the
largest producer in the sub- Saharan Africa, the 5th largest petroleum
exporting country in organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) and
the 5th largest oil exporting country to the united state of America, amounting
to about 8% of USA crude oil imports. Here current production capacity is over
2 million barrels per day on average.
Although Nigeria for
over 30 years has established herself as a leading producer of crude oil, she
is known in energy circles as a “gas province with only a little pool of oil”.
The oil producing states in Nigeria so far discovered include: (Abia, Akwa
Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ondo and Rivers) state, nine in number with a common nomenclature
known as the “Niger Delta region”. The formulation and implementation of the
Nigerian oil sector is under three actors which are:
The ministry of petroleum resources,
established in 1972 with four
departments functioning differently.
The Nigeria national petroleum corporation
(NNPC), established in 1977 under
decree No. 33 as government owned
company together with the petroleum inspectorates
as its integrate part under six directors.
The private sector, which comprises of
multinational oil companies, which
produces about 98% of the total production
and indigenous companies producing about 2%.
The oil sector is categorized into up and down stream,
connected with forward and backward linkages.
Over the past 30
years, different people have commence differently in the activities of oil
production in Nigeria, to some it has made a Variety of contributions to the
Nigerian economy, such of which include: the creation of employment
opportunities, the supply of energy to industries, supporting the
transportation system, source of revenue
generation to the government, etc. while to others, oil production does more
harms than good to the environment and the economy as a whole, which call for
In terms of output
production and product contribution, oil witnessed steady progress throughout
the period under review. Crude oil production increased from 1.9 million
barrels in 1958 to 152.4 barrels in 1966. Production increased from 395.7
million barrels in 1970 to 660.1 and 845.5 million barrels in 1975 and 1979
respectively. The increase in production witnessed during this period was
precipitated by Middle East crisis and the 1973/74 oil embargo which caused a
sharp reduction in world oil supply. The increased oil prices that the crisis
generated helped to boost local oil production in the country. However, this
was short-lived as the early 80s witnessed a glut in the international crude
oil marketing to over-supply, which culminated in sharp drop in prices and central
reduction in the production quotas by OPEC member countries. Consequently, oil
production in Nigeria dropped from 0. 1 million barrels in 1980 to 535.9 and
383.3 million barrels in ‘1986 and 1987 respectively. The situation improved in
the 90s as crude oil output rose from 383.3 million barrels in 1987 to 711.3, 742.3 and 772.9 million barrels in 1992,
1996 and 1998 respectively. The trend continued between the year 2000 and 2009.
The cumulative crude oil production for the country increased from 20,575881mi11ion
barrels in 2000 to 27,052, 0677
million barrels in the 2009. In general, crude oil production witnessed
appreciable increase over the period under study.
production of oil in Nigeria is not totally free from challenges; rather it has
been plagued by various problems which undermined its optimal development over
the years. In general term, from 1990s till date, public control and
bureaucracy, poor funding of investments, communal disturbances, smuggling and
diversion of petroleum products, fraudulent domestic marketing practices, and product adulteration, oil theft among others has
in identified as the challenges facing crude oil production in Nigeria.
Statement of Problem
Crude oil which is
believed to be a gift of nature
to a nation, like Nigeria and others who are blessed, has become a controversial subject among scholars
and researchers worldwide. Over the years, the issue of whether crude oil
production translate to economic growth or not has been a burning question to
many as well as a global subject of considerable interest and debate as a bone
of contention. While some strongly opine that crude oil production is the
life-wire of a producing country’s economy, maintaining that its export has a
positive relationship with economic growths, spill-over effect on foreign
reserve as well as determining the rate at which her currency is exchanged for
in international market etc, to others, the reverses is the case, as the argued
that it has done more harms than good.
argument, they point at environmental degradation, pollutions, deprivation of
means of livelihood,
on oil revenue, socio economic conflict associated with crude oil production
activities among others. To be specific, the words of Juan Perez Pablo Alfonso,
fully support the latter when he says “I call petroleum the evil’s excrement.
It brings trouble…waste, corruption, consumption, our public services fall apart and debt, a debt we shall have for
years” (the economist, May 22, 2003).
contradictory argument “for and against” the subject matter, has create a gap
which keep both end from reaching a consensus. Objectively, these hypothesize
arguments is what necessitate the conception of this study as an attempt to
ascertain which assertion.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objective of this
research work is sub-divided into two, the main and specific.
To examine the impact
of crude oil production on economic growth in Nigeria.
To examine the impact of crude oil
export revenue on economic growth in Nigeria.
To examine the transmission channel
through which exchange rate is affected by crude oil export and thus economic
growth in Nigeria.
To examine the relationship between
Nigerian foreign reserve and her economic growth through crude oil export.
Ho: There is no significant
relationship between oil revenue and economic growth in Nigeria.
Ho: There is no significant
relationship between exchange rate and economic growth in Nigeria.
Ho: There is no significant
relationship between Nigerian foreign reserve and her economic growth.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research work
focus on the impact of crude oil production on economic growth in Nigeria, with
time series date from 1980-2011, which cover a period of thirty-two (32) years
to examine the relative impacts of oil revenue, exchange rate and foreign
reserve as the regressors on the regressed (economic growth represented by G-DP).
This choice of time space is believed to be long enough to capture and explain
the long-run relationship that exist between the variables noted above in the
growth of Nigerian economy. On its limitation, source of gathering data was the
major constraint encountered in the cause of conducting this study, together
with the difficulty in accessing the internet in Amassoma due to poor network
services. Also financial constrain and time factor as well as academic stress among
others, as well contributed to the limitation of this work.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It will provide useful information to
government and policy makers.
It will also provide an econometric
basis upon which to examine the impact of crude oil production on economic growth
It will as well add to existing
literature and knowledge.