Computerization of Staff Recording


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Computerization of Staff Recording

PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS ON Computerization of Staff Recording


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1  BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Employee records may be defined as "record that contain initial application forms, results of physical examination, interviewers’ notations, test scores, periodical appraisals, transfer and promotions, disciplinary actions, releases and retiring wages, salaries, taxes paid, contributions and similar items" (Soveign, 1984). Some or all the following information may be also included in an employee file: full name, address telephone number, age and sex, nationality, ethnic origin, religion, membership in trade union etc. In many organizations these records are poorly organized and under-utilized despite the vital or important information contained there. Emerson (1984) argued that personnel records pose a particular problem because of their "bulk, longevity, and sensitivity."

Professional literature on archives and records management pays little or no attention at all to the subject of managing personnel records even though these files are substantial. In comparison to financial records, which have clear retention periods, personnel records do not seem to have well developed retention period.

Merriam – Webster dictionary (2014) defines computerization as the ability to carry out, control, or produce by means of a computer. Computerization is the use of computers, control systems and information technologies to optimize productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services. The correct incentive for applying computerization is to increase productivity, and/or quality beyond that possible with current human labor levels so as to realize economies of scale, and/or realize predictable quality levels. In this scope of industrialization, computerization is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provides human operators with machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements while increasing load capacity, speed, and repeatability. Computerization plays an increasingly important role in the world economy and in daily experience. (Merriam – Webster, 2015).

A database is a collection of interrelated data (records) organized so that individual records or groups of records can be retrieved that satisfy various criteria. Typical examples include employee records and products catalogs. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2015).

Mankind has been keeping records since the dawn of civilization. The oldest surviving examples of records made by humans are purely pictorial such as painting of animals, which dates back to more than 15,000 years ago. These methods of record keeping were mostly found in Spain and France.

However, as civilization developed, pictorial records changed into pictographic representations, such as hydro graphic used by Egyptians and subsequently into the alphabetic system we use today. Also, the changes from subsistence economies based on trade necessitated the recording of numerical and financial information as well as records of the people and events.

Similarly, the traditional office system used by most organizations consists of paper based filling systems, which comprised filling cabinets, folders, shelves that occupied considerable space, and also require maintenance/servicing frequently (Williams, 1994).

According to Ramez and Shamkant in their book titled “Fundamentals of database system” Databases were classified into 3 types, these are:

1.     The hierarchical model, in which record types are linked in a tree like structure (e.g., employee records might be grouped under a record describing the departments in which employees work).

2.     The network model, in which arbitrary linkages of record types may be created (e.g., employee records might be linked on one hand to employees departments and on the other hand to their supervisors - that is, other employees).

3.     The relational model, in which all data are represented in a simple tabular form.

In the relational model, the description of a particular entity is provided by the set of its attribute values, stored as one row of the table, or relation. This linkage of n attribute value to provide a meaningful description of a real-world entity or a relationship among such entities form a mathematical n-tuple, in database terminology, it is simply called a tuple. The relational approach also supports queries (request for information) that involve several tables by providing automatic linkage across tables by means of a “join” operation that combines records with identical values of common attributes. Payroll data, for example could be stored in one table and personnel benefits data in another, complete information on an employee could be obtained by joining the tables on the employee’s identification number. To support any of these database structures, a large piece of software known as a database management system (DBMS) is required to handle storage and retrieval of data (via the file management system, since the data are physically stored as files on a magnetic disk) and to provide the user with commands to query and update the database. The relational approach is currently the most popular, as older hierarchical data management systems, such as IMS, the information management system produced by IBM, are being replaced by relational database management systems such as IBM’s large mainframe system DB2 or the Oracle Corporation’s DBMS, which runs on large servers. Relational DBMS software is also available for workstations and personal computers.

The need for more powerful and flexible data models to support non business applications (e.g., scientific or engineering applications) has lead to extended relational data models in which table entries need not be simple values but can be programs, text, unstructured data in the form of binary large objects (BLOBs), or any other format the user requires. Another development has been the incorporation of the object concept that has become significant in programming languages. In object-oriented databases, all data are objects. Objects may be linked together by an “is-part-of” relationship larger, composite object. Data describing a truck, for instance may be stored as a composite of a particular engine, chassis, drive train, and so forth. Classes of objects may form a hierarchy in which individual objects may inherit properties from objects farther up in the hierarchy. For example, objects of the classes “motorized vehicle” all have an engine; members of subclasses such as “truck” or “airplane” will then also have an engine. Furthermore, engines are also data objects, and the engine attribute of a particular vehicle will be a link to a specific engine object. Multimedia databases, in which voice, music, and video are stored along with the traditional textual information, are becoming increasingly important and also are providing an impetus toward viewing data as objects, as are databases of pictorial images such as photographs or maps. The future of database technology is generally perceived to be a merging of relational and object-oriented views.

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Employee records may be defined as "record that contain initial application forms, results of physical examination, interviewers’ notations, test scores, periodical appraisals, transfer and promotions, disciplinary actions, releases and retiring wages, salaries, taxes paid, contributions and similar items" (Soveign, 1984). Some or all the following information may be also included in an employee file: full name, address telephone number, age and sex, nationality, ethnic origin, religion, membership in trade union etc. In many organizations these records are poorly organized and under-utilized despite the vital or important information contained there. Emerson (1984) argued that personnel records pose a particular problem because of their "bulk, longevity, and sensitivity.".. computer science project topics

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