on the list of prime value for Maiduguri a town in Bornu state, Nigeria, is
peace. Peace is the most valuable public commodity, yet the most elusive
(Francis David, 2006). These four years (2009-2014) of Insurgency has brought
loss of lives and halted economic activities in various parts of Maiduguri. The
activities of bokoharam have brought devastating effects on Maiduguri which has
resulted in loss of lives both human and livestock, suffering, destruction of infrastructures and
public/private facilities, disruption of economic/socio-economic activities
like agricultural, trade etc. This situation has threatened not only the
internal peace and security of Maiduguri but also the peace in Nigeria and
beyond. So alarming is the fact that most of these areas affected by insurgency
lack the will to stop this social charade and have fallen prey to continuous
usury and subtle manipulation by politicians who take advantage of this
situation to involve in shady deals like kidnapping and arm deals using insurgency
as a cover (Chiedu, 2013). Peace building has therefore become the most
pressing challenge faced by Nigeria at large and Maiduguri in particular. This
situation is so partly because of feudal system of leadership which encourages
total submission to authority without question which carries with it,
ineffective terror control means.
the effort of government through its institutions like the armed forces,
religious bodies, NGOs etc, to curb the excesses of insurgence in Maiduguri,
peace has continued to elude her and
sustainable development, stopped. On that note, this project will seek
to show the role of NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
insurgency is not easily defined, it may be said to be the use of force,
usually violent, as a means of coercing a target population to submit to the
will of the terrorists (Asika,4:2009). Insurgency is intended to elicit or
maximise fear and publicity, making no distinction as to combatants and non
combatants in a conflict.
is no legally agreed upon definition of the term ‘Insurgency’, but a recent
United Nations (UN) document describes it as any ‘act which is intended to
cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non combatants with the
purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an
international organisation to do or abstain from doing any act’. The word
‘Insurgency’ is both emotionally and politically laden, particularly as it
imports issues of national liberation and self-determination. Insurgency takes
many forms, including political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic,
religious and ecological issues. The taxonomy of Insurgency, including
precipitating motivations and considerations, is now a subject of intense study.
Whether the one as seen in Maiduguri can be reduced to a type may be an
interesting subject, but for purposes of this work, the primary concern is the
threat of insurgency. Insurgency is one objective of organised terrorism, just
as terrorism is one of several strategies of insurgency. Both terrorism and
insurgency may be used by states in their internal operations. Terrorism and
terrorist tactics constitute part of the strategies and tactics of insurgency.
The operational tactics are essentially those of guerilla warfare. The object
is to intimidate, frustrate and raise the feeling of uncertainty, imminent
danger and the loss of hope, so as to cripple or limit all aspects of human
activity and normal livelihoods. Al Qaeda, Boko Haram, MEND and, lately, Jama’atu
Ahlissunnah Lidda’anati Wal Jihad, are currently international and local
Nigerian examples of terrorist networks. Until recently, Nigerian terrorist
activity was thought to be motivated by ethnocentric considerations. Currently,
there appears to be a pronounced religious content in the character of
insurgency in Maiduguri. A few of the earlier experiences merit examination
here, as a guide in estimating the character, trend and intensity of the
current campaign, as well as the role of NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
research works on the role of NGOs in peace building in Insurgency affected
areas especially Maiduguri shows that there is no government that can take on single handily, the weight of
peace building in form of aid. Among the various actors that participate in
these processes are the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which fulfil a
pivotal role in terms of establishing and maintaining essential services like
assisting refugees and internally displaced populations and helping to
increasingly work "in the field," providing humanitarian relief and
development assistance in post terror places like Maiduguri. As they carry out
their work, they face many serious problems. Insurgency often deny them access
to those in need, terrorist groups demand payoffs, and local violence threatens
the safety and even the lives of field personnel. Donors also subject these
NGOs to political pressure, diminishing their neutrality.
Nongovernmental Organizations face a lot of challenges in the discharge of
their duties often caused by Insurgent activities. They are faced with the
dilemma; should they negotiate with terrorists to deliver aid, or should they
maintain independence and impartiality. Some Nigerian agencies like WACOL
operate only through local partners because they cannot negotiate with
terrorist-affiliated groups. Red Cross has resorted to having armed escorts and
allow Movement for Peace in Maiduguri (MFPIM) and Africa Awake to supervise the
aid distribution. Although impartiality is valuable for the long term operation
in Maiduguri, humanitarian aid agencies feel they are forced to compromise
these principles in an effort to gain aid access according Osueke (2006)
the spate at which insurgence has dealt a heavy blow on Maiduguri,
economically, socially and otherwise, this research work will seek to highlight
challenges of insurgency. Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the role of
NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri and the way forward.
as to achieve the purpose of this research the following will be looked into:
1. To assess the role of NGOs in Peace Building.
examine the effectiveness of NGOs in the peace building in restive areas in the
3. To identify
the way forward for NGOs in the peace building campaign.
So as to achieve the objectives stated above, the
following research questions were used as a guide in achieving the objectives
of this research work:
1. What are the roles of NGOs in peace building?
2. How effective have NGOs been in peace building in
3. What is the way forward for NGOs in the peace
To solve the problems mentioned in the research
questions, the following hypothesis are formulated:
Ho: NGOs are not
effective in the peace building campaign
H1: NGOs are not
effective in the peace building campaign
One of the benefits of this research work is to
researchers and academics. It will be of tremendous help to governments and
their agencies in tackling insurgency and the challenges that comes with it.
The findings and
recommendations of the researcher will help bring to the fore the role of
Nongovernmental Organizations in peace building coupled with limitations to
It will also be readily
available for international organizations that may need insight into what it is
like for NGOs working in Maiduguri.
OF THE STUDY
This research work
focuses solely on the role of Nongovernmental Organization in peace building in
Maiduguri. It also touched the challenges of Insurgency and how it affects the
work of NGOs.
Based on the findings of
this study, another research area touched is Peace building.
LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
This research work was carried out under a tight
schedule. The time frame was short in between lectures and private studies.
Another limitation faced by the researcher was
delay in data collection from the various respondents. Most respondents were
too busy to fill up the questionnaires due to their work schedule. This almost
delayed the work.
Insurgency: An insurgency is a rebellion
against a constituted authority (for example, an authority recognized as such
by the United Nations)
when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents
is a process that facilitates the establishment of durable peace and
tries to prevent the recurrence of violence by addressing root causes and
effects of conflict through reconciliation, institution building, and
political as well as economic transformation.
NGO: Non Governmental Organizations
with poor people in over 40 countries across the world. Our goal? To end
poverty. We believe in doing things differently. We know that with the
right opportunities, poor people will find their own solutions - and build new
Nigeria commenced programmatic operations in January 2000 after a Country
appraisal which found poverty in the midst of plenty. We commenced work then
through a Country Agreement signed with the National Planning Commission of the
Federal Republic of Nigeria. Our works are currently spread across 26 states of
- Work with
government and their institutions to promote laws, policies and practices
that address the rights of poor and excluded communities
- Work with
organisations to advocate accountable, democratic and transparent
governance with pro-poor policies and programmes
access for women and girls to decision-making process, resources and
justice at all levels
poor and excluded people and communities to influence policies and
practices that affect their rights
the structures, systems and processes of ActionAid Nigeria and partners
for accountable, effective and dynamic operations
The Vision of
AAN is to see a Nigeria without poverty and injustice in which every person
enjoys his or her right to life with Dignity.
Nigeria’s mission is to work with the poor and excluded people to eradicate
poverty and injustice in Nigeria.
Nigeria lives by the following values of ActionAid and which has been
demonstrated through the accountability, learning and planning system (ALPS)
and this include; mutual respect, equity and justice, honesty and
transparency, solidarity with the poor, powerless and excluded, courage
of conviction, independence from any religious or political party affiliation
and Humility in presentation and behaviour.
Board of Trustees
Donli - ChairProf. Sam Egwu - Vice ChairProf. U. A. IgunDr. Kole ShettimaMr.
David NwachukwuDr. T. AgaryComrade John OdahMr. Johnson IkubeMrs. Omotunde
Ellen-ThompsonDr. Jummai Umar-AjijolaMallam Lawal Abdullahi IndeMrs. Hauwa
Evelyn ShekarauMrs. Ranti Bosede Daudu Dr. Abdu Hussaini