1.1 Background to the Study
It has been discovered that no matter how
well conceived public efforts might be to restore and maintain Nigeria cities
and communities as good places in which to live and find work, the ultimate outcome
of city growth and its pattern of development depends on private decisions and
private investments (Agar, 2017). Furthermore, Agar,
(2017) posit that, as both the traditional and new
towns and cities grew in response to Nigeria’s socio-economic and political
requirements some of these cities grew according to prescribed laws but
majority developed amorphously. He added that, present Nigerian cities are
plagued with decay and congestion, speculation and ugliness and they suffer
disorder as though born of anarchy.
pointed out by Aloba (2015), in most cities of the developing countries,
investment in infrastructure including housing has failed to keep pace with the
growing population. According to Jiboye (2016), Nigeria cities also share this
similar experience at available data reveals that their population has been
growing at an alarming rate, thus ranking them among the fastest in the world.
The urbanization rate has resulted in a total urban population of 60-66 million
(United Nations, 2015). Thus, this phenomenal rise in population, spontaneous
increase in the number and size of most Nigeria cities have in the past few
decades led to acute shortage of decent and affordable dwelling units (Oduwoye,
2016). The outcomes of this developmental process are diverse urban problems
ranging from overcrowding, deplorable environment, poor living conditions,
inadequate and poor infrastructural services, homelessness and other related
problems (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2014).
Jiboye (2016) noted that Nigerian population has gathered
momentum. It will continue to increase for some time even if there is a change
favourable towards family planning and birth control. Increasing population at
the expense of socio-economic development is inimical to people’s well being
and development. An increasing population has consequences and implications
most especially for a country like Nigeria especially on family income.
Jiboye (2016) posit that, overall population growth and increasing urbanization
have led, especially to the rapid growth of large cities, which have been
overwhelmed by the sudden jump in travel demand. He furthered that the supply
of transport infrastructure lagged far behind. He therefore concluded that public
sector finances in general are so limited that funding for transport
improvement is woefully inadequate.
recent years, Warri Metropolis has experienced rapid population growth as a
result of increasing population. According to Davis
(2017), the main reason for this rapid increase in population is not far
from uncontrolled migration and rapid urbanization. Rapid population growth has
no doubt affected transport facilities in Warri Metropolis. The people of Warri
place premium on transportation and infrastructural development.
(2017), town unions, private individuals, and associations,
being part of voluntary agencies, have played active roles in the development
of transport system through the provision of transport, environmental, and
infrastructural and community facilities at transportation companies and major
roads in Delta State and Warri in particular which have in turn boast transportation
and socio-economic development in Warri and Delta State at large.
major developmental challenge facing the developing world today as pointed out
by Jiboye (2016) is how to cope with urbanization that is currently on the
environment and living standards. It is doubt that Nigeria
is the most populous country in Africa and also the most populous among the
black nations of the world. Globally, Nigeria is among the ten top countries
with the largest population, in fact, the seventh among the countries with the
largest population in the world (United Nations, 2016).
As pointed out by Arthur (2017),
systems provide a key to the understanding and operation of many other systems
at any different scales. (Barke and Hare (2014) further added that at one
extreme, inter-continental transport provides essential communication between
the advanced and developing worlds, while local transport to rural markets in
many parts of the third world is a vital component in changing dynamic
and Onokala (2004b) have clearly pointed out that “in human geography, one of
the most fundamental themes is spatial interaction”. They argued that spatial
interaction involves the movement of goods and services and people between
various centres in space. According to Atubi and Onokala (2004b), when
constructing or improving a road network where economical solution for one road
link may not necessarily be the best solution for the network as a whole. They
furthered that the cost of implementing one project to high standards may
consume resources that would be better spent over the whole network, or in
filling other gaps in the network with lower standard roads. Furthermore, for
any meaningful division of labour and specialization in production process to
take place in any society (such as Warri Metropolis) there must be an efficient
and effective means of transport (Atubi and Onokala 2004a). The various Feeder
roads and paths are constructed to connect the interior parts of the region and
this gives room or serve as an advantage to motorcycle (Okada) and tricycle
(Keke napep) transport system in Warri Metropolis.
Muhammad (2016) said that, the ultimate consequences
of increasing population growth on transportation facilities are shrunken
resources. He further said that this usually leads to movement of people away
from such an area to other less populated regions where resources are more
abundant. In that way migration becomes a means of achieving a balance between
rural population and available resources. In all of these cases, Agar (2017)
opined that rural migration may be seen in principle as a spontaneous response
of rural people to the scarcity of resources under the impact of population
Several works (such as Jiboye, 2016; Agar 2017; Arthur,
2017; Muhammad; 2017) have been carried out on rapid population growth and
transportation facilities in both urban and rural areas. Studies conducted have
clearly pointed out that rapid population growth has a direct effect on
transport facilities in most Nigerian cities. It is
against this background that this study is carried out to examine the effects
of population growth on transportation facilities in Warri Metropolis.
Problems and issues emanating from rapid
population growth and urbanization abound and are enormous and alarming. This
has in recent time called for a periodic re-examination of the effects of
population growth on transportation faculties in Nigerian cities, towns, and
villages. The growth rate of the population needs to be studied, monitored and
managed properly with conscious efforts. If not, it can militate against all
the efforts of government to fulfill its commitment to improving the quality of
live and standard of living of the people of the country (Jiboye, 2016). Rapid
population growth is detrimental to economic and social development. There will
be little or no time to adjust economy to developmental efforts. According to
Koontz (2016), population will continue to eat up any gain in economic
development and these may lead to adverse effects on the people as put forward
by Malthus. Nigerian population requires and deserves urgent attention as a
result of its alarming and unprecedented growth rate, also, because the
population has gathered momentum.
Koontz (2016) opined that lack of poor
technological development to monitor or regulate the speed of vehicles, lack of
clean vehicles, high overloading of men and goods are great problems to road
transportation. In addition, Nwakamma (2016) noted that the poor attitude of
drivers towards their passengers is nothing to write home about. Road transport
is the principal mode of transportation in Nigeria accounting for the vast
majority of freight and passenger travel.
As pointed out by Ojabo (2017), over the years the road system has been
subjected to heavy freight which was beyond the carrying capacity of the roads.
This made the condition of the roads deteriorate and the result is that much of
the road system is barely usable. Hence roads were built to carry freight that
could conveniently be carried by railways. Today, road transportation accounts
for over 95% of passengers and freight transport (Ojabo, 2017).
One of the fundamental problems of man
since antiquity is that of overcoming the friction of distance both in space
and time. Man has been on the move from one place to another seeking for a
means of survival. The emergence of modern means of transportation in the world
and most importantly in developing countries like Nigeria has a remarkable
influence on the socio-economic development of urban and rural areas.
Transportation to some in the urban settings is a choice not a concern (Dakyes
and Ogbuli, 2012). However, in urban setting the availability of transportation
facilities is often limited if provided at all. Transportation enhances the
process of economic growth in urban areas by making needed services available
to rural dwellers (Dakyes and Ogbuli, 2012).
has been discovered in recent studies (such as Koontz, 2016; Nwakamma, 2016; Ojabo, 2017) that the lack of good
road in the Nigeria cities, town and villages makes it difficult for the people
to access good markets for their farm produce as more than 86.6% of roads in
the area are very bad. This was discovered to have affected the socio-economic
activities of the people thereby increasing the level of poverty in the
communities in Nigeria cities and villages. It is against this background that
this study is carried out to address the aforementioned problems.
main aim of this study is to examine the effects of population growth on
transportation facilities in Warri Metropolis. However, the specific objectives
1. examine the socio-economic effect of population growth on the
livelihood of Warri people.
2. examine the effects of population growth on transportation facilities
in Warri Metropolis.
3. examine the causes and consequent effects of rapid population
growth in the area.
identify the predominant mode of
transportation and the transport facilities provided in the study area.
the major problems of road transport in Warri Metropolis.
or suggest lasting solution (s) to the problems of transportation system in the
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the socio-economic
effects of population growth on the livelihood of Warri people?
2. What effect does population growth have on transportation facilities
in Warri Metropolis?
3. What are the causes and consequent effects of rapid population
growth in the area?
What is the predominant mode of transportation
and transport facilities provided in Warri Metropolis?
are the major problems of road transport in Warri Metropolis?
are the solutions to the problems of transportation in the study area?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
research hypothesis will be tested in this study using appropriate statistical
1. There is no significant relationship between population growth and
the transport facilities provided in Warri Metropolis.
2. There is no significant relationship between population growth and
the problems of transportation in Warri Metropolis.
3. Rapid population growth has no significant effect on Warri
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study lies in
overall “the effects of population growth on transportation facilities in Warri
Metropolis”. Rapid population growth has become so wide spread that it cannot
be overlooked. It is to this effect that the study is aimed at informing the
people of Warri Metropolis, the extent to which population growth have resulted
to socio-economic and environmental problem such as transportation problems,
lack of income, financial difficulties among families, housing congestion,
overcrowding, land use congestion etc which have generated urban problems.
Hence, effort must be put in place to
control population explosion of cities and urban centres in order not to experience
the effect of population growth on transportation facilities in Warri
Metropolis. Transportation facilities is continued to be affected by the rapid
increase in population and uncontrolled migration of the rural dwellers to the
cities in search for greener pasture and job opportunities. There may be urban
problems around Warri Metropolis due to rapid population increase which will in
turn affect not only the residents of Warri Metropolis but also their
socio-economic activities thus hindering the socio-economic development of the
area. It may also become a major socio-economic determinant in the study area.
It is therefore hoped that the result of
this research work will go an extra mile to control socio-economic and
environmental problems such as lack of income, financial difficulties among
families, and housing congestion caused by increasing population of the urban
centres resulting to urban problems. The findings will also provide useful
background information for future research in the contribution of geography
towards nation building.
1.7 STUDY AREA
area (Warri Metropolis) is located in the South-South Geo-Political zone and in
the Niger Delta Region of the Southern part of Nigeria (Edevbie,