comparing the antimicrobial strength of three most common antibiotics, which
includes: streptomycin chloranphenicol and gentarccin.
urine and high vaginal swab (H.V.S) were collected from park lane Enugu. The organisms
isolated were pure culture of staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli
test was carried out with the use of
sensitivity disk containing various minimum inhibitory concentration of the
obtained shaved that gentamicn was more effective followed by chloramphenicol
while some organisms shaved resistant to streptomycin.
LIST OF TABLE
TABLE 1 NUTRIENT AGAR
TABLE 2 BLOOD AGAR
TABLE 3: ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST SYAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
TABLE 4: ANTIBIOTIC AGAINST
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1: STREPTOMYCIN
FIGURE 2: CHLORAMPHENICOL
FIGURE3: SENSITIVITY TEST ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
FIGURE 4 SENSITIVITY TEST ON ESCHERICHIA COLI
FIGURE 5: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
FIGURE 6: ESCHERICHIA COLI AGAINST
TABLE OF CONTEANT
List of tables
List of figures
Table of contents
Aims and objective
Statement of problem
Scope of study
Limitation of study
Procurement of antibiotics
Antimicrobial activity in vitro
Antimicrobial activity in vivo
Resistance to antimicrobial drugs
Factors affecting antimicrobial activity
Clinical use of antibiotics
Characteristic of antibiotics
Materials and method
Direction for the preparation of nutrient agar
Direction for the preparation of blood agar
Material used for the prewritten of media
Isolation and identification procedures
4.1.1 Isolation and identification of staphylococcus
4.1.2 Isolation and identification
of escherichia coli
HISTORICAL BACK GROUND
Antibiotics are chemicals when the chemical are put into the
body; they stop the growth of kinds of germs. They help the body to fight
diseases. More than 3,000 years ago ancient people stumbled over the discovery
that some moulds could be used as a cure. The egyptians, the chinese, and
indians of central American would use mold to treat rashes and infected would.
At that time they didn’t understand either diseases or treatment. As time went
on, people began to gain some insight of disease. In the 1860 Louis Pasteur
Shaw that many disease were caused it bacteria. Later he discovered that we may
be able to fight germ and other microbes. It was two German doctors, who were
first to make an effective medication form microbes. Kudo if and Emmerich and
Oscar has conducted their experiment in the
1890. They proved that germ that would for another. All the men did was
to take the germ from infected bandages and grow then in a test tube. They
would then isolate a particular germ
that caused green in factions in open would. This germs was bacteria called
Bacillus pyoicyaneus. They put then into another test tube containing other
type of bacteria, it was then it
happened that the bacillus pyocyaneus wiped out the other disease germ. The
germs that was killed were those that caused cholera, typhoid, diphtheria and
anthrau. From this the two men created a medication that they called pyoanase,
it was the first antibiotics used in hospitals.
1928 Alexander Fleming, a Scottish scientist, discovered penicillin, the first
antibiotics. He was keeping in a petn dish when a speck of mold fell in, it
cause the mold to grow on the nutrient agar used to feed the bacteria.
Surpassingly, it stopped the growth of the bacteria. Fleming through the mold
called penicillin notatum produced a substance that killed the bacteria and so
called it penicillin. However, he was not able to entrant it from broth in
which he grew the mold.
1945, Waksman used the word antibiotics for the first time and proposed that it
can be defined as a chemical substance of microbial origin that possesses
antibiotic powers. He discovered a drug called streptomycin. It onginated
frommicrobes found in soil and was a cure for many intestinal diseases. Now antibiotics like penicillin and
streptomycin was discovered. Each was effective against certain disease, but
scientist wanted more. Doctors however, anted broad spectrum drug. That is a
single antibiotics that could cure many disease
search proved successful one laboratory discovered Aureonycin, which is a drug
that does the job of penicillin and streptomycin. Another laboratory discovered
1949, yet another laboratory came with one of the effective antibiotics ever found, terranycin. This drug
could be used against many bacteria disease (Katzung, 1994).
To identify causative organism that are delectious to
To determine the potency of the different antibiotics.
To know the type of organism sensitive to the
Streptomycin is more effective
Streptonyin is not effective
H2 - Chloramphenicol
is not effective
H3- Chloramphenicol is not effective
Gentamicin is more effective
H5 –Gentanicin is not effective
Comparing the strength of the three antibiotics.
Due to the
problem encountered in Enugu Urban (obiagu), most people abuse antibiotics
owing to the general belief that antibiotics can be used in the treatment of all kinds of diseases.
This can result to drug resist. Accumulation of these drugs can lead to
internal denage. Hence this study which
compares the antimicrobial strength of three antibiotics.
will be limited to the maximum inhibitory concentration and know the organism
sensitive to the different antibiotics under certain temperature.
time in making research for the project work.
Inharailability of equipment and reagents in the course of carrying out the