OF THE STUDY
known everywhere has developed over a number of centuries. The sophisticated
and complexity which characterized human communication in the modern world are
the result of a very long and sustained effort by human beings to improve on
one of the most fundamental aspects of their existence.
to this evolution, the McBride commission has noted that, “As the world has
advanced the task of communication has become even more complex, in explaining
this complexity, McBride and his colleagues (McBride et al, 1981, P.3), have
this to say “ throughout history, human beings sought to improve their ability
to receive and assimilate information about their surroundings at the same time
to increase the speed, clarity and variety of their methods for transmission of
information”- quoted in (Okunna, 1994 Page 1-2). Therefore, following the above assertion it
can be submitted that, the origin of the media and its responsibility to
disseminate information, most importantly in Nigeria context dates back to the
era of the early press in the year 1800-1929. It was the very first time
Newspaper emerged in the country in the name of “Iwe Irohin”.
development of Nigerian press is purely classified into three as follows, from
1800-1920 (Early press), 1927-1960 (National press), 1960-date (Modern or
Contemporary press). These were viewed as the chronological order of the
evolution of print media.
Thus, in 1940,
the Presbyterian Mission established the first printing school in Calabar the
reason for this, is to increase the literacy level of the people as of then.
And, in 1845, an Anglican Missionary Rev. Henry Townsend, established another
printing press as well as printing school at the mission compound in Abeokuta.
Five years later (1859), Rev. Townsend moved forward to establish the first
newspaper called “Iwe Irohin fun awon era Egba at Yoruba”, Meaning newspaper
for the Egba people and Yoruba. Reverend Townsend’s major aim of establishing
the newspaper was to increase the reading culture of the Egba and Yoruba people
so as to instill literacy desire in them. He also, wanted to embark on
Christian stewardship through impacting education and literacy. Iwe Irohin also
served as a potent political tool against the British government, thereby informing
the mass on the need to know why the British must go.
As the paper was
making waves and facing all sorts of criticism, another paper was also
established by the Anglo West India, Robert Campbell, he follows Iwe Irohin up
with Anglo African with the year 1863. It was printed in Lagos states
Campbell’s objective of setting up the newspaper was to exploit the growing
interest in Western Education and Enlightenment in Lagos state in 1860 by
providing cheap and accessible materials which would educate, inform and
entertain its reader. It was the first paper in the country to present another
side of the story as it constituted on open competitor with Iwe Irohin.
Richard Beale Blaiz established the Lagos Time and Gold Coast Colony Advertiser
in the year 1803-1883. The name of the paper reflected the joint administration
of Gold Coast and Lagos at the time. Thus, newspaper establishment journed
through the time, Zik established the West African Pilot, up till this day. It
is important to note at this juncture that, from the period of the early press
and now, there have been an immense function played by the media in order to
restore the dilapidating and retrogressing state of Nigerian society.
the year went by, there was a tremendous dawn in the broadcast media. The radio
and television emerged, thereby making waves in the dissemination of
information. Radio as a means of communication relies on the use of
electro-magnetic waves propagated through space at the speed of light, radio
messages were first received in Nigeria through the empire service of the
British Broadcasting Commission (BBC) in 1932, At this time, Prospective owners
of radio had their transmission through their sets which was wired to the post
office. In 1936, radio transmission was established with the commencement of
transmission through the RDS (i.e. Radio Distribution service) in Lagos. One
feature of the program transmitted at this time was low content of Nigeria or
By 1948, there
were ten “Wire” Wireless stations serving about 80,000 subscribers in the
country. This followed until television came to Nigeria for the first time in
1956. When Queen Elizabeth II came to Nigeria same years, the BBC came with a
large contingent. The BBC placed TV screens outside the assembly to enable
those outside the gallery of the house to watch what was happening. Nigeria
takes credit as the pacesetter in Africa in regards to television broadcasting.
That notwithstanding, television broadcasting started in Nigeria as a result of
intense political and ethnic rivalry. Account has it that, the first television
in Nigeria was the Western Nigeria television (WNTV); Ibadan, it is thus
readily clear that, the colonial maters did not make much use of television during
their period of rule as television came toward the end of colonialism in
Nigeria. This was in operation when Chief Obafemi Awolowo established the WNTV.
He was said to have has permission for access to the government owned national
broadcasting commission (NBC) so that he would reply to the allegation of act
of perfidy leveled against him by the actual grievance that eventually gave
rise to regional Broadcasting dates back 1953.
From the year
1953-1960, the Eastern Nigeria television (ENTV) was established, then in April
1962 the federal government started the Nigeria television service, channel 10
Lagos, which was headed by T.O.S. Benson. After the civil war in the country
there was significance increase in television broadcasting. Almost all the twelve
states of the federation (as at 1972) had their own TV station. Then in 1976,
the number of stations had risen to nineteen. In 1977, the Nigeria Television
Authority (NTA) was established to function as an independent body. NTA was
given charge over television broadcasting in Nigeria; however, the 1979
constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria later remover the exclusive
power of the NTA in television broadcasting in Nigeria. The constitution rather
allowed for the establishment and operation of broadcasting and stations by
different state governments, organization or individual subject to the
president’s permission (Okunna 1993, page 55).
At this point, it
can be submitted that right from the first day the mass media emerged in
Nigeria starting with the print media; the media have been playing the watch
dog role in the society, performing a number of functions which benefit the
individual as a member of the society. These range from “serious” information
and educational functions to “higher” functions like entertainment,
information, dissemination, education, advertising, socialization, promotion of
culture, motivation, mobilization, integration. They also play the role of
agenda setting based on issues that are controversial in nature, here the mass media
set the political agenda for the society by deciding what political topics
people talk about etc. NTA as one of the media organization has of the mass
media to the audience, e.g. election, child abuse, Kidnapping, issue of
flooding, crime, war, fire disaster, conflict, fuel subsidy etc; also print
media e.g. Newspaper, magazine, Journals, books are not left out.
But suffice it to
say that, there are some challenges on the part of the media in using all these
channels listed above to send information, thus making the actualization of the
noble dream stressful, even NTA a government owned channel has its own
shortcomings in the area of playing its roles effectively. Albert, it has been
enslaved to the whims and caprices of the political leaders and the government.
that weakens the power of Nigeria television Authority (NTA) and other media
organization is poor infrastructural facilities. As sobowale (1989: page 304)
quoted in Okunna (1994. P. 36) has observed with reference to Nigeria, such
basic infrastructural facilities as roads and transport system are in an
abysmal state of development; and this limits the work are the media
practitioners in gathering information. One can also consider the state of
technological expansion and advance in communication technology, with this
media have found it difficult to work effectively.
In conclusion, it
is submitted with respect that Nigeria television Authority (NTA) has been
disseminating information to the masses. But, at the same time has in one way
or the other demonstrated the challenges facing its discharge of duties.
Despite all odds, this research study will definitely bring changes.
OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS:
efforts made by the media to tackle the challenges facing them, especially
during military government era, there are still Kinds of other problems which
constitute threat to the power of disseminating information to the masses.
Indeed, it seems as if to say that much has been not achieved in the area of
For this reason,
this research seeks to expose the extent the Nigeria media, NTA in particular
is tackling the challenges and the extent they have gone in keeping the masses
informed on the day to day events.
OF THE STUDY
The research work
tends to know
If political interest or sentiment imposes
serious threat to effective disseminating information on media?
If economic factor takes precedence in the
coverage of program by media?
If technology factor restricts media from
disseminating information to its target audience.
If the level of literacy of the audience
help media in gathering and reporting issues of the day.
OF THE STUDY
One of the basic
functions of the media is to provide the society with information based on
accuracy, facts, truth, and objectivity and to uplift our cultural heritage.
The task of the researcher is to find out the challenges facing the media most
especially in the developing countries like Nigeria.
This study will
serve as a basic for carrying out further research and evaluation of how the
challenges in the media can be faced bearing in mind that, what is obtainable
in NTA station will also be applicable in other media stations in the country.
Therefore, there is hope that the finding posted in the work will be beneficial
to other students and researchers attempting to research on a similar project.
What is the nature of challenges
facing the media in information dissemination?
Do the media have sufficient freedom
needed for their operational efficiency?
Do the media work enough in
reporting issues in high places of government administration?
What is the possible measures that
should be used to enhance operation of the media.
H1 There are serious challenges facing the media
H0 There are no serious challenges facing the
media in information dissemination.
H2 The media have sufficient freedom needed for
H0 The media do not have sufficient freedom
H3 The media work enough in reporting issues in
high places of government administration.
H0 The media do not work enough in reporting
issues in high places of government administration.
H4 There are possible measures to be used to
enhance operation of the media.
H0 There are no possible measures to be used to
enhance operation of the media.
study will be based on one of the theories of the press which is libertarian
theory. The reason why it is suitable for the study is that, the theory is
concerned on the perception for freedom of the press; liberal philosophers like
John start mill, Milton greatly advance the advocacy for press freedom (Okoro,
et al 2003, p.21).
In the main,
libertarian theory prescribes that; an individual should be free to hold and
express opinion freely and publish same. The theory does not see need for
censorship since it acknowledge the great potentials of human as rational being
who can distinguish between truth and falsehood, it further believes in the
“self brightening process of the free market place of idea”, where good ideas
will eventually eliminate the bad ones if all were granted free expression.
researcher used the theory to back up the media especially the media in Nigeria
OF THE STUDY:
The scope of the
study is covered within Nigeria television Authority (NTA).
chooses to limit the sample population to students and civil servants who watch
television programmes drawn from Enugu Network station, because majority of the
government owned media like NTA are situated in the state. The students of the
institute of management and technology (IMT), Enugu and the students of Enugu
state university of science and technology (ESUT), also some students from other
higher institutions were included; secondary school students were taken into
account, because they are greatly influenced by what they watch.
Also, the sample
of civil servants was drawn from both the federal and state civil services.
Operational Definition of Terms.
It means the hindrances or constrains which make the media not to execute their
duties effectively and efficiently.
In this research study, the media simple means those
medium or channel via messages or information are passed across from the source
to the heterogeneous audience e.g. Nigeria Television Authority (NTA), Enugu
state Broadcasting services (ESBS), Federal Radio commission of Nigeria (FRCN)
etc. for print media we have newspaper, magazines like the Guardian, Daily Sun,
Tell, Punch etc.
In this research, it means a way by which the media
carry out their social responsibility in order to tell their audience what is
happening within and outside their society.
Programmes of the media which are used to educate,
entertain, mobilize, sensitize, inform and socialize the masses concerning
everyday activities within and outside the society.