research examined Managing Diversity in Multinational Organization with special
reference to Unilever Nigeria Plc. The research adopted survey research design. Data were gathered
through primary source with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. Simple
random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of sample, this was used
to eliminate biasness in the selection process of the respondents.
Data garnered were presented on table using
percentage and the formulated hypotheses were analysed with the used of
Chi-square statistical method. The result of the analysis shows that there is no significant relationship
between recruitment and diversity management. Also, Communication play
effective role in managing diversity and there is a correlation between
diversity management and organizational productivity
on the conclusion of the analysis recommendations were proffered to the staff
and management of Unilever Nigeria Plc.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Cover Page 1
Table of Content 3
1.0 Background of
the study 5
1.1 Statement of the
Research Problem 9
1.2 Objectives of
the Study 10
1.3 Statement of
Research Questions 11
1.4 Statement of
Research Hypothesis 11
1.5 Relevance of the
1.6 Scope and
Limitation of the Study 13
Definition of Terms 13
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF
THE RELEVANT LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 15
Diversity – A Competitive Advantage 19
Diversity in the Workforce 24
Action and Valuing Diversity 31
2.5 The Importance
of Top-Management Commitment to Diversity 37
and Challenges to Managing Diversity 39
Culture and Diversity Management 41
Practices used to Effectively Manage Diversity 44
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH
3.1 Introduction 48
3.2 Research Design 48
3.3 The Study Area 48
3.4 The Study
3.5 Sample Size and
Sampling Technique 49
3.6 Description of
Research Instrument 49
3.8 Method of Data
3.9 Method of Data
Encountered on the Field 51
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
4.2 Analysis of
Demographic Variables 52
4.4 Test of
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY
OF MAJOR FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Major
5.2 Conclusions 70
5.3 Recommendation 72
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Managers are increasingly being asked
to boost productivity, quality and customer satisfaction while also reducing
costs. These goals can only be met, however, through the cooperation and effort
of all employees. By creating positive work environments, where people feels
valued and appreciated, organizations are more likely to foster the employee
commitment and performance necessary for organizational success.
Considering the following examples by
Kreitner, Kinicki and Buelens (2002), which are in contrast
with the above statement, taken from three different work environments. “Ade Arogundade, a finance manager with
Springboard Southward Trust has received racist literature telling him he is
not wanted at the organization and has been the subject of anonymous petitions
sent to mangers demanding that all black employees be removed from the work
Also, a report revealed appalling
behaviour in the Dutch police force: “79 percent of female employees had been
confronted with pin-ups, 55 percent with “dirty gestures”, 38 percent with blue
films and 44percent had the feeling of male colleagues “undressing them with
their eyes (Hooghiemstra 1998).
Finally another example cited by Kreitner et al (2002) described Sarah Locker, “a woman police officer,
received pornographic magazines on her desk and literature making derogatory
reference to her Turkish background: she decided to take her complaints to
court. She won her case, but met even more hostility on her return to work. The
episode finally ended in a serious suicide attempt.
Sandra Valentine, a woman pilot
claimed that she was told by a male colleague, “Women should not be let loose
with anything more technical than a knife and fork. Once a senior pilot had
announced to passengers. “The first officer is Ms. Valentine and yes, ladies and gentlemen, she is
a woman we have then in the front as well as the back these day as, do not
Managing diversity however is a
sensitive potentially volatile and sometimes uncomfortable issue. In Europe, as
well as in the USA,
creating a diverse workforce is increasingly considered a necessity. Jitan Patel, race equality manager
with HSBC, a major UK bank, declares “for us the idea is true diversity, which
means that we value every individual for who and what they are and we provide
them with the opportunities to meet them full potential within the
However, diversity represents the multitude
of individual difference and similarities that exist between people (Kretiner
et al, 2002). This definition underscores three important
issues about managing diversity. First, there are many different dimensions or
components of diversity. This implies that diversity pertains to everybody. It
is not an issue of age, race or gender. It is not an issue of whether one is
heterosexual, gay or lesbian; or indeed Catholic, Jewish, Protestant, Celestian
or Muslim etc. Diversity also does not pit’ White males” against all other
groups. Diversity pertains to the host of individual differences that makes all
of us unique and different from other. Secondly, diversity is not synonymous
with “differences”. Rather, it encompasses both differences and similarities.
This means that managing diversity entails dealing with both simultaneously.
As Price, (2004) puts it, people are different.
They vary in gender, culture race, social and psychological characteristics. He
affirmed that our attitudes towards their differences could be negative or
positive depending upon individual perspectives and prejudices.
As members of organizations, it is
difficult to challenge the often sub-conscious actions and elaborately
entrenched justifications for unfairness. Not least, because discrimination and
prejudice are expressions of power entailing the ability to prevent, inhibit or
punish critical comment. Yet, if people are the key assets of a business, it is
important to realize the maximum benefit from their human capital. True competitive
advantage, requires the best from everyone, without restrictions, it demands a
prejudice-free inclusive attitude towards actual and potential employee. It
Nevertheless, fairness, justice, or
whatever we call it, it is essential and most companies in general and most
multinational firms in particular do not have it. Everybody must be judged on
his performance, not on his looks or his manners or his manners or his manners
or his personality or whom he knows or is related to (Townsend, 1970). Why should multinational organizations and
their managers offer equal opportunities to a diverse range of employees? The judgmental
perspectives are indefinable which can be related to different models of Human
Resources Management (Goss, 1994).
These are Human Capital and Social Justice.
Human capital, which artificially
blocking the progress of any group results in less than optimal use of an
organization’s human capital. Discrimination is irrational since it limits the
resource value of employees. On the issue of social justice, a moral or ethical
interest in social equality, compatible with soft or social market Human
Resources Management (HRM). Economic benefits are secondary to this social
STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Diversity as it is, is a sensitive
potentially volatile and sometime unconformable issue. It is therefore not
surprising that organization encounter significant problems when trying to move
forward with managing directly. The following is a list of the most common
problems to implementing successful diversity programmes.
i). Inaccurate stereotypes and prejudice-this
problem manifests itself as weaknesses. In turn, this promotes the view that
diversity hiring will mean sacrificing competence and quality.
ii) The problem of ethnocentrism, which
represents the feeling that one’s culture rules and norms are superior or more
appropriate than the rule and norms of another culture.
iii). Poor career planning which is associated
with the lack of opportunities for diverse employees to get the type of work
assignments that qualify then for senior management positions.
unsupportive and hostile working environment, which excludes diverse employees
from social events and the friendly camaraderie, that takes place in most
of reverse discrimination. Some employees believe that managing diversity is a
smoke screen fro reverse discrimination. This belief leads to very strong
resistance because people feel that one person’s gain is another’s loss.
The need to revamp the organizations
performance appraisal and reward system. Performance appraisals and rewards
system must reinforce the needs to effectively manage diversity. This means
that success will be based on a new set of criteria. Employees are likely to
resists changes that adversely affect their promotions and financial rewards.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study is aimed at managing
diversity in multinational organization. Hence the following are the specific
i). To determine the techniques that lower
costs and improve employees attitude in multinational organization.
ii) To improve multinational organization
recruiting efforts from enhanced productivity.
iii) To increase group problem solving and
iv) To increase sales, market share and
deal with those problems encountered in the process of managing diversity and
to show the relationship the exist between diversity management and
STATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS
role does communication play in managing diversity effectively?
can diversity be effectively managed?
there any significant relationship between diversity management and
diversity management contribute to multinational organization?
equal opportunities and the management of diversity be distinguished in any
STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H1: Ho: There
is no significant relationship between recruitment and diversity management.
Hi: There is no significant relationship
between recruitment and diversity management.
H2 Ho: Communication
does not play effective role in managing diversity
H1: Communication play effective role in
H3: Ho: There is no correlation between diversity management and
H1: There is a correlation between diversity management and
RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
The following segments of this
proposal would elaborate on the significance of the study. However, the study
emphasizes on the awareness recognition, understanding and appreciation of
It revolves around creating an
environment in which employees feels valued and accepted. In essence, valuing
diversity shows another important factor that entails a cultural change geared
towards viewing employee differences as a valuable resources that can
contribute to the organization success. This generally takes place through a
series of management education and training programmes that attempt to improve
interpersonal relationship between diverse employees and to minimize blatant
expression of sexism an racism.
However, the significance of this
study will bring to limelight the inadequate level of magnifying diversity in
multinational firms, in general and in Nestle Nigeria Plc in particular, with
the hope that this will ginger all parties connected to rise up and correct
The conclusions and the
recommendation that will be coming out at the end of the study will assist in
defining a new method of managing diversity in multinational organizations,
with a view to improving the employees productivity.
The outcome of the study is also
expected to go a long way in addressing the problem of individual differences
and similarities in the company and in multinomial organizations general.
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The cope of the study would cover all
aspects of organizational performance with particular emphasis on diversity
management. It will determine those factors that lowers costs as well as
improving organization’s recruiting efforts in order to enhance productivity in
multinational firms/ organizations.
However, the study is limited to
business environment precisely multinational organization, using Unilever
Also data will be collected form all
employees in the hierarchy of authority. It is limited to the multinational
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
represents the multitude of individual differences and similarities that exist
Managing Diversity: This entails enabling people to perform up to their maximum potential.
It focuses on changing an organization’s culture and infrastructure such that
people provide the highest productivity possible
Affirmative Action: This focuses on achieving equality of opportunity in an organization and
it often mandated by national or super national laws.
Recruitment Practices: This focuses on attracting job applicant at all levels who
are willing to accept challenging work assignment. This focus is critical
because people learn the leadership skills needed for advancement by
successfully accomplishing increasingly challenging and responsible work
This refers to unfair treatment of an individual or group on grounds of their
sex or race.
is predominant value-system or ethos of an organization usually a mixture of
implicit beliefs, values and explicit statement.
Performance Appraisal: The process of assessing the performance of an employee in
his job, appraisal can be used for salary review, training, needs analysis and
job improvement plan for example
Management: The process of working
with the through others to achieve organizational objectives effectively and