sites or area were sampled, using the”simple random sampling technique” to make
up the study group namely; Malali, Ungwan Rimi, Stadium round about, Kawo for
soil or root-not nematodes from tomatoes plant. Ten (10) plants uprooted randomly
at each site(s) visited making a total of forty (40) plants were isolation and
identification of nematodes was done at the Department of Crop Protection,
Institute of Agricultural Research (I.A.R.) Ahmadu Bello University Zaria base on movement action, tail, shape and a
tutorial book. Result obtained shared occurrence of nematodes as follows;
Malali, 342; Ungwan Rimi 40; Stadium Round About, 66; Kawo, 261; making a total
of 708 nematodes. Of this number, Crieonemoides accounted for 7(0.990Co);
Helicotylenchus 544 (76.840Co); Meloidogyne larva 62
(8.760Co); Pratylenchus 19 (2-680Co); Rotylenchus 64
(9.040Co) and Tylenchus 12 (1.690Co). the researcher;
considering the negative effect of these on the yield/production of tomatoes,
suggests/profers/and also, when transplanting, intercropping.
Nematodes are tiny,
thread-like worms measuring 0.0 15 inch to 0.187 inch in length. They are
either free living parasitic or saprophytic, identified on the basis of shapes,
size and special structures. The females become swollen and flask-shaped as a
result of accumulation of eggs with the anus virtually terminal in position,
while the males are vermiform (Sherf and Macnah, 1986; Chitwood, 1949; Taylor
and Sasser, 1978; Idowu, 1979 and Idowu, 1983)
Nematodes are known for
causing destructive diseases of crops as they have a wide range of feeding
habit, constitute about 80% of all multicellular animals, attacking nearly
every crop that is grown in the field and as a result crop yields is greatly
affected reducing quantity and quality of crops on field, orchard, home garden
and green houses (Mai, 1985; Symth, 1994; Sasser, 1952). Among the favoured
host in Nigeria as a whole include tomato, yam, tobacco, papaw, citrus and
sweet potato (Sasser, 1954).
Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) belongs to the family Solanaceae and subilass
polypetalae of the dicotyledenous group of plants. Tomato is a slight
modification of tomato the name used by the Indians of Mexico, who have grown
the plant for food since prehistoric times. Other names reported by early
European explorers were tomato, tumatle and tomatas, probably variants of
Indian words (Wener, 2004).
The precise origin of
tomato remains a mystery but there is reason to believe that the original
tomato came from Peru called tomato, it was taken to Mexico by migrating
Peruvians. It found its way to Italy through the explorations of Christopher
Columbus. Tomatoes were taken back to Europe along with silver and gold and
they were grown on the continent as a pretty curiosity (Fallagatter, 1999).
Though, tomato has become one of the most popular and widely grown vegetables
in the world (Chung, 1998), until the 19th century, it was grown
chiefly as an ornamental plant for its colourful fruit (Villareal, 1980). This
is because it was regarded with suspicion due to the reputation of Solanum-like
fruits being poisonous (Philips and Rix, 1993)
1.3 Study Area:
Kaduna is the State
capital of Kaduna State in north central Nigeria. The city, located on the
Kaduna River, is a trade center and a major transportation hub for the
surrounding agricultural areas with its rail and road junction.
The Kaduna River is a
tributary of the Niger River which flows for 550 kilometers through Nigeria. It
got its name from the crocodiles that lived in the river and surrounding area.
Kaduna in the native dialect, Hausa, was the word for “crocodile ’’(http://
maguzawa.dyndns.ws/ Retrieved on 2009-07-09). Activities going on there
includes; fishing, packing of sand and farming such as maize, tomato, spinach,
cocoa-yam, okro, pepper etc.
1.4 Purpose of the study:
The destruction of plants
comes from organisms including nematode and insect pest. However, this study is
restricted only to those plant nematodes that affect tomatoes grown in some
selected area of River Kaduna. Many plants are damage by plant parasitic
nematodes which feeds and multiply in or on root, stem spreading soil borne
viruses or facilitate secondary infection by bacteria and algae.
All kind of living
organisms are dependent on plants in one way or the other for their food
supply. Therefore, controlling nematode that destroy our crops, it is almost
important both agriculturally, economically and socially for well being of both
living organism. Although important contributions in nematology are coming in
from many countries. Like Nigeria, generally expanded it is in view of hope
that it help in one way or the other in preventing or controlling plants
nematodes, as the knowledge of the nematodes themselves is important toward
successful nematode control.
1.5 Aims and objectives:
- To isolate and identify nematode
- To determine the distribution or
assessment of nematode populations
- Proper suggestion on minimizing infection.