This project is in compliance with one of the task, I have to
shoulder in order to be awarded the Higher National Diploma Certificate
in statistics department from Institute of Management and Technology,
Enugu, during my final year in the Polytechnic 2004/2005 session
emphasizing on Statistical Analysis of Road Accident in Enugu from 1993
Road accident has been of great social and economic concern. It has
became a total topic for scientific investigation. The number of deaths
on the road today, particularly on the major roads of rural-urban areas
are what motivated me in writing this project.
This study is essentially based on the Statistical Analysis of Road
Accidents recorded in Enugu rural-urban roads from 1993 to 2000 with the
objectives to; identify the causes of road accidents in Enugu and
compare the attendant fatalities/deaths, ascertain whether the causes of
road accidents are unrelated with vehicles, establish the trend of road
accident over the years, investigate, whether there is any seasoned
pattern of occurrence of road accident and trend and/or investigate
whether there is any seasonal pattern of the attendant deaths and trend,
and recommend methods or ways of reducing road accidents to the Enugu
State government, the institutions concerned with traffic management and
enforcement of the laws within the geo-political entity and the road
users, and the federation in general.
The project work is divided into five chapters. Chapter one gives
the introduction, socio-economic effects of road accidents, aims and
objectives, scope and limitation, significance of the study, sources of
data and the problems of the data collection. Chapter two covers the
literature review. Chapter three is concerned with the methodology.
Chapter four deals with the data presentation and analysis. Finally,
chapter five covers the findings, conclusion and recommendation on the
TABLE OF CONTNETS
1.1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.5 SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION
1.6 PROBLEMS OF DATA COLLECT
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 CHI-SQUARE TEST OF INDEPENDENCE
3.2 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA) TWO-WAY
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
3.3 METHOD OF LEAST SQUARE
4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 4
4.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 5
4.3 INVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL PATTERN OF
OCCURENCE OF ROAD ACCIDENT & TREND
4.4 ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 6
4.5 INVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL PATTERN OF
OCCURRENCE OF DEATHS OF THE RTA & TREND
4.6 ANALYSIS OF DATA IN TABLE 7
4.7 PRESENTATION OF THE RTA IN ENUGU STATE
ON A HISTROGRAM
5.0 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: CONTINGENCY TABLE
TABLE 2: TWO-WAY ANOVA TABLE
TABLE 3: TWO-WAY ANOVA (CROSS EFFECT) TABLE
TABLE 4: NUMBER OF ROAD ACCIDENT BY CAUSES AND TYPE OF VEHICLE (1993 – 2000)
TABLE 5: ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT DATA ACCIDDENT DATA (1993 – 2000)
TABLE 6: ROAD TRAFFIC DEATH RECORD (1993 – 2000)
TABLE 7: TOTAL NUMBER OF ACCIDENT IN ENUGU (1993 – 2000)
In the world today, transportation which is the conveyance of goods
and passengers from one phase to another or the movement of commuter and
their goods, produce and products, and/or they themselves from one
location to another have played an important role in the development
process, thus, serving as one of the aspects of developmental change
indicators and structural well-being of the society and government among
other sectors or areas of the world socio-economic development. It
provides room not only for transaction of business to take place, market
possibility for our goods, produce and products produced, but also
makes it possible for such to reach the find consumer(s).
For instance, in Costa Rica, before the inter America – highway was
constructed, driving beed cattle on the hoof from grazing lands to San
Jose often resulted in a 40 percent less of weight, and imports were
necessary to supply local needs. But with and weather highway, it was
possible to deliver truck-traider units of cattle over night, and costs
Rica become self-supporting in meet. Also in Bolivia, the highway from
cochabamba to santa cruz reduced the travel time in the rainy season
from several weeks to fifteen hours and provided a link between the
country’s food supplies and its people. Until then the price of
home-grown rice was 50 percent higher than the imported rice because of
the high cost of transport. Furthermore, transportation as an integral
part of national production and distribution system calls for its
development, improvement and better network system as to necessitate or
provide a means of servicing domestic and international market.
This is of primary importance in the early stages of economic
development because it promotes an accumulation of capital, which allows
the economy to progress from the subsistence level at which most
production is consumed locally. Therefore, transportation and other
government programmes such as education and health care, necessarily
compete for public expenditures particularly in the underdeveloped
From the foregoing, the developed nation are efficient and effective
in transport business as a result of their improvement and technological
advancement over the years.
Nigeria has one of the most modern and best development transport
systems – roil, road, air and in-land waterings which transverse the
length and breath of the country to link the industrial, commercial, and
agricultural centers, that is to say, transportation in Nigeria is
traditionally under four major mades namely;- road, rail, water and
air. However, in this study, the researcher zeros down to road
In Nigeria road network, roads are categorized into three; the truck A
roads which is the responsibility of the federal Government, truck B
roads which is the responsibility of the state Government and the third
category-truck C which is the responsibility of the local Government.
Whether truck A, truck B, and truck C roads, these roads are used by the
motorists, cyclists, pedestrians either to convey their passengers,
goods, produce, products or to reach, transact and communicate with
another n different destination. Road transportation has not only been
discovered as the cheapest means of transportation but also provides
door-to-door transport services and delivery of goods.
But apart from road congestion which is symptom of the availability
of insufficient road space to satisfy, with but difficulty, all demands
made upon it, road accident is another difficulty task in traffic
management schemes and has been of much concern to various governments
of our timer hence, the concern of any well-organised government is how
to identify and minimize (if possible curb) the high rate of accidents
on our roads today.
We are aware of the number of deaths on the highway being recorded
these days. This places a question mark on the value we attach to human
life and property. It is clear on the basis of logic backed by
observations that certain people have worse accident records than
others. This research will investigate why it is so and would also
proffer suggestions to check the ugly trends people who drive recklessly
or dangerously are potential victims of accidents and are prone to such
conditions. They also constitute a nuisance to the society.
Most accidents have been caused by a whole lot of actors. Prominent among them are as listed below:
1. Over-Speeding: Some times may be due to
greediness or the tendency to drive as many turn as possible always want
to be at the head of others, without considering the consequences. By
so doing they neglect road signs warnings and road traffic regulations
and laws. Thus, the risk of some dangerous.
2. Drugs/Alcohol: The side effects of drugs or
alcohol our body cannot be over emphasized. These cause drowsiness and
finally sleep when during. They lead to wrong calculations and loss of
regard to lvies of human beings and property of such driver concerned.
Some causes excessive alertness and nervousness, loss of control and
finally a breakdown of the body system of such person involved.
3. Roads (Road Accidents Immuned Delusion Syndrome): Some
drivers because they have driven a particular vehicle for years, taxy
develop the feeling that they have overmastered the vehicle and also
fully experienced do believe that they cannot be involved in road
traffic accident, others or other drivers because of their belief either
a shrine, ring, talisman, etc. do believe that they cannot be involved
and/or die in road accident, they drive without regard to road traffic
regulations and other road users.
4. The Road: The construction of the road matters a
lot. Roads with multiple bands experience many accidents. Poorly
constructed road witness many accidents e.g. presence of informal bymps,
very narrow roads. Roads that are poorly maintained cause a lot of
accidents. The absence of road signs also contributes to road accidents
e.g to show construction sites, narrow bridges, cross roads, bumps, “T”
5. Negligence of road Signs: Most Nigeria drivers are so
illiterate that they cannot read road signs and as such endanger their
lives and the lives of others and property.
6. Aggression: This is psychological. Also result of or
may be due to lack of sleep in the previous night due to one problem or
the other. The driver then wake up annoyed and aggressive. He jumps
into the vehicle without the morning drills, quarrels with the vehicle
passengers, co-drivers and road traffic officers etc. thus the risk of
accident victimized and even others.
7. The Weather: This comprises the rain and the
sun and their effects on the roads. The rains wet the roads and make
them slippery therefore, tyres treads loase grip of the roads and render
braking almost impossible as and when desired. The sun heats up the
tar on the road which in tam heats up the tyres. When this happens,
weak tyres tends to burst very easily. Both conditions causes accidents
on our road if not observed.
8. Topography: This includes hilly, rocky forest and savanna
areas. Areas where the roads run in between hills particularly with
dedling rock constitute a lot danger to road users. Where such exits,
viewing distance are shortened, the rocks can fall into the road at any
time and cause accidents. Likewise where roads run across forests,
trees, and/or their branches, many fall into the road and where this is
not noticed in a good time, they can cause serious accidents. Animal
shiving is the forests can cross the roads at any time while grazing
animals common in the savanna requires can also cause accidents.
9. Carelessness of Pedestrians: The other road user that is
seen as the commonest – the pedestrian(s) may out of illiteracy and
inexperience in using the road disobey the road traffic sign by crossing
when it is not due for him or her to do so. Or cross the busy road
without looking left or tight as to see when the road is free for
10. Foods: It takes many drivers time to understand the effect
of some foods on their body. Most eat one type of food because others
do. They fail to understand that, while some people or such people will
be active after a heavy food, others or themselves imitating feel dull
and will be sleeping after such a heavy food and thus, endangering their
lives and property while driving.
1.1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROAD ACCIDENTS
Several aspects of road transport negative impact (road accident) on
the society have already been discussed. Some additional negative
effects deserve mention. Road accidents have significant effects, which
they impact. Adversely on the economic and social welfare of a
nation. The effects on the economy usually take the form of costs which
under certain circumstance can be measured. Some of these costs;
private costs are borne by those responsible for the accident, while
others are social in nature in that society as a whole bears them. In
this section, the study examines specific effects of road accidents.
1. Traffic hold-up and associated waste: When an
accident occurs, the most easily observed effect is a rapidly built-up
traffic holdup. In the process, fuel is wasted, engines are overheated,
delays lead to lost business and social opportunities. The direct
effect is a showed down and more expansive business transactions.
2. Destruction of motor vehicle: Road accidents
usually entail the complete destruction of motor vehicle involved. In
some cases, the vehicles are salvaged at considerable cost to owners.
In Nigerian environment, accidental vehicles are either left on the
scene of accidents indefinitely or are towed away to police stations
where they are similarly abandoned. The implication of this practice is
that scrap value of such vehicle is lot to the economy and stock of
transportation, facilities necessary to move people and goods from place
to place is reduced. The opportunities for realizing gains from within
an integrated economic systems are lost, and the welfare of citizen
earlier mentioned corresponding reduced. Loss to the economy arising
from road accidents is easily measurable.
3. Destruction of transport infrastructure: Accidents
destroy valuable road transport infrastructure whose replacement would
cost multiples of the original capital expenditure. These costs are
significantly foreign exchange are imported. Components of transport
infrastructure that may be damaged include;
iii. Culverts etc
Thus, resulting to capital reduction instead of capital accumulation.
4. Destruction of other infrastructure: Road accidents
also destroy other infrastructure such as telecommunication poles and
wires, electricity poles and transformers, real estate including
residential and office buildings. Damage to these infrastructure
disrupt electricity supply, telecommunications services and normal
office facilities; all these tend to show down normal economic and
social transactions with adverse consequences on the quality of life.
5. Short supply of goods: Accidents cause the damage or
destruction of goods being transported. The loss reduces total quantity
of goods available for consumption by the final consumer(s) and reduces
profits for or made by the companies whose goods are destroy. Where
insurance cover is provided, cost of damage are passed on the insurance
companies thus, reducing their capital gain if the goods are essential
for normal subsistence, large scale destruction may necessitate
importation which would either place a downward pressure on foreign
exchange rates or lead to substantial devaluation of the exchange rate
in a system of flexible exchange rates.
6. Medical bills for treating accident victims: Medical bills
of accident victims are some of the adverse effect of road accidents.
Treatment in the orthopedic hospitals is time-consuming and expensive,
after discharge of patients, the ability of such a person to perform
duties is usually reduced. This has adverse effect on production in the
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of this project are to;
1. Identify the causes of road accident in Enugu and compare the attendant fatalities/deaths.
2. Ascertain whether the causes of road accident are unrelated with vehicles.
3. Investigate whether there is any seasonal pattern
of occurrence of road accidents and trend and/or compare the number of
4. Establish the trend of road accident over the years.
5. Recommend methods or ways of reducing road
accidents to the Enugu State Government, the institutions concerned for
traffic management and enforcement of the laws within the geo-political
entity and the road users.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study would help the government, the general public, the
Nigerian Police Force, the Federal Road Safety Commission and other
agencies concerned with safety on our roads in the following ways:
1. It will help the Federal Road Safety Commission
and other authorities concerned with similar assignment to assess their
performance over the years.
2. It will help the Federal and state governments
particularly Enugu State to articulate policies on road transportation
and safety, such policies will form the basis of planning the
socio-economic infrastructure necessary to ensure safety and enhance the
performance of road users.
3. it will help the Federal Road, Safety Commission
and other institutions concerned organizing sensitization workshop on
seminars programmes for road users ascertain the positive impact of such
workshop or seminar being organized.
4. It will awaken the sense of responsibility of road users and government.
5. It will help reduce or put to a stop the ill
attitude poster by some of the law enforcement agencies (the Nigerian
Police N20 syndrome) hindering the reduction of road accident.
1.4 SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION
The data used for this project work were collected internally in
secondary form. Secondary data imply statistical materials or
information not originated or obtained by the investigator himself, but
obtain from someone’s record or published source such as the central
bank, government agencies and non-governmental duties such as
universities, research institutes etc. The data were however, provided
by Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) Enugu Division and the Federal
Road Safety Commission, Enugu Sector Command.
1.5 PROBLEMS OF THE DATA COLLECTION
The problems encountered during collection of data cannot all be
stated here. This research work posed a lot of problems. Since the
researcher did not originally collect the data, there was mistrust
between the primary users and the secondary user of the data. It took
me a lot of money, time and energy traveling from my destination to the
office of the Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) and that of the Federal
Road Safety Commission all in Enugu, so as to get the relevant data for
this research work. This made me to miss most of my lecture hours and
also disappointed my supervisor Mr. Pius Ugwu by not coming when I
promised to see him several times.
It was very difficult to collect the relevant data from these offices
because they said that they couldn’t release the data for security
reasons. But after presenting letters from my Department Head Mr.
Nwagbara G.P. dated 4th July, 2005, the desired information was given to