1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Typhoid Fever is a world wide disease which creates a very
serious public healthy problem. In many under develop countries; the
word health organization (WHO) estimated that about one person out of
ever hundred (100) is suffering from typhoid fever. The also identify
typhoid as a serious public health problem which incidence is highest in
children and young adults between 5-19 years old.
Typhoid fever is a systematic disease caused by dissemination
of salmonella typhoid or salmonella paratyphoid mainly characterized by
fever was called because of it’s common similarity to typhus. It was
clearly defined pathologically as a unique disease of it’s own, it is a
common world wide illness, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water
contaminated with the faces of an infected person, which contain the
bacterium salmonella enterica. The bacteria then perforate through the
intestinal wall and are phagocytosed by macrophages.
According to medial dictionary (Budelka, K.G. 1971), which
reveals the typhoid fever as an infection which is usually spread by
contamination of food, milk or water supply with salmonella typhi (S.
typhil), either directly by sewage or indirectly by flies or by faulty
personal hygiene. Symptomless carries harbouring the germ in the gall
bladder and excreting it in their stools are the main sources of out
breaks of disease in this country. The average incubation period is
10-14 days. A progressive fedric illness marks the onset of disease
which develops as the germ invades tymphoid tissues, including that of
the small intestine (peyers patches) to profuse diarrhocal (pea soup)
stools which may become frankly haemorrhagic, ultimate recovery usually
begins at the end of the third week. A rose coloured rash may appear on
the upper abdomen and back at the end of the first week.
1.2 STATE OF PROBLEM
Over the last decade, there has been alarming increase in the
rate of recorded cases of typhoid fever in our various hospitals
especially in Abia state. This has led to a very serious questions on
the minds of the citizenry in particular and the professionals in our
medical field in general. Ordinary, since typhoid fever is generally
associated with a lot of symptoms such as fever headache, cough etc.
these however make it a complicated disease with a very serious economic
and social effect on the victims. This study seeks to find the
prevalent rate of typhoid fever and suggest possible solutions in
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The following are the aims and objectives of this study.
1 To estimate the trend of the disease (typhoid fever)
whether it is increasing or decreasing for this period of 2001-2010.
2 To estimate the seasonal variation of the recorded cases of typhoid fever from 2001-2010.
3 To predict rate of prevalent in future.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This project is significant in the sense that health problem
imposed by typhoid fever in this part of the world makes it a serious
health issue that requires adequate attention and care. This research
work will be of great significance in the following ways:
- This study will help the hospital management, the state
government and the general public to know the particular months or
quarter of the year that were mostly affected by typhoid fever in order
to carryout enlightenment campaign towards reducing the incidence of the
- If the trend of reported cases of typhoid fever is found to be
on increase, it will enable the hospital management to put intensify
effort towards applying more preventive measures in order to combat the
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
Ho: There is no significant increase in the trend of recorded cases of typhoid fever from 2001-2010
Hi: There is significant increase in the trend of recorded cases of typhoid fever from 2001-2010.
Ho: There is no seasonal variation in the recorded cases of typhoid fever from 2001-2010
Hi: There is seasonal variation in the recorded cases of typhoid fever from 2001-2010.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
This study is designed to cover Aba, the commercial city of
Abia state. Aba is a city and a big trading center in Abia state. It
will also cover a period of ten (10) years (2001-2010).
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The major limitation to this research work was basically on
the collection of data and information is regarded as confidential,
besides there was inadequate asses to the data due to reluctant attitude
of the hospital medical record department to release the data on time
as well as the limited available literature which the researcher was
able to lay her hands on after much time wasted.