CAPITAL MARKET IN NIGERIA, ITS EVOLUTION, FUNCTION AND IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY
The effectiveness and growth of capital market in Nigeria economy is a
problem that has assumed of recent an intractable dimension. The
concept market is one of the compartments of financial system that
promotes harm and investment in an economy. The stock exchange market
is one of the key institutions of the capital market, a network or
individuals, institution and instrument involved in the effective
channeling of funds from the surplus to deficit economic unit.
The question whether a market undergone growth and development or not
cannot be adequately answered by simply ‘Yes or No’ there are some
issues to be addressed.
The main purpose of this study is to show how investors can dissever
when a market has attained growth and development for their top
investors to know the correctiveness of a price, which depends on the
use of the information at time of the price decision.
Finally the study is designed to cover the practical and theoretical
area of the stock market. The study is about the market and how
effective it is in setting prices, which reflect the worth of the
securities, traded in the market.
TABLE OF CONTETNS
1.0 Background to the Study
1.1 Statement of research Problem
1.2 Objective of the Study
1.3 Research Question
1.4 Statement of the Hypotheses
1.5 Limitation and Scope of the Study
1.6 Justification of the Study
1.7 Research Methodology
1.8 Plan of Study
1.9 Definition of Terms and Concept
2.1 Concept of Capital Market
2.2 Role of Capital Market
2.3 Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH)
2.4 Capital Market Development and Successful Operation
3.1 Evolution of the Nigeria Capital Market
3.2 Structure of the Nigeria Capital Market
3.3 Regulatory Body in the Capital Market
3.4 Instrument of Capital Market in Nigeria
3.5 The Benefit to Companies in the SSM
3.6 Growth and Significant of the Capital Market
3.7 Contribution of the Stock Exchange to Capital Formulation
3.8 Problems of the Nigeria Capital Market
3.9 The Impact of Liberalization policies in the Nigeria Capital Market
3.10 Reform of the Nigeria Capital Market
3.11 Depth of market
METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Evaluation criteria
4.2 Data Presentation
4.3 Data Analysis
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The rate of economic development of any nation is inextricably liked to the sophistication of its financial markets.
Financial markets assist the nation of the world to give the needed financial resources and skills for growth and development.
Apart from promoting a sound and efficient payments mechanism, the financial intimidation.
The financial market is an institutional arrangement that facilities
the intermediation of funds in an economy. By financial intermediation,
it means mobilization of financial resources from surplus spending
units and the channeling of such to deficit spending units and the
channeling of such funds to deficit spending units for production
investment and the generation of assets or securities in the process.
Thus the financial system generates a wide range of financial
instruments (assets), which are means of transferring purchasing power
and are tailored to suit the time preferences of both lenders and
The financial market performs an economic function by facilitating
the transfer of real economic resources from the lenders to the
borrowers. By the inducement of interest income, the market facilitates
the transference of purchasing power from the lender to the investor
who wishes to exercise demand over resources.
When the financial market is efficient, funds flow freely and rapidly
among its various sources and uses. As long as financial instrument
remains substitutable for each other, changes in supply and demand in
the money market have a rapid over effect into the capital market.
Financial markets are therefore constitutional whenever participants
with aid of infrastructure technology and over devises facilitates the
mobilization and channeling of funds into productive investments. The
importance of the financial market lies in financial intermediation to
link the deficit sector with the surplus of the economy. In the
intermediation process, financial intermediaries engage principally in
matching lenders and borrowers. They bring savers and borrowers
together by selling debt instruments or securities and deposits to
savers for money and lending that money to borrowers. As a result, the
lenders of investors receive claims on investment, which have stable
market value and high liquidity.
Financial intermediation does not ensure from direct lending and
borrowing process but arises from the lending-borrowing proves, which
involves the generation and exchange of debt instrument or
securities. The point of emphasis therefore is the financial
intermediaries use their own liabilities to create additional assets,
help mobilize funds, gather together to reap economics of scale and
minimize the investors.
The financial markets system features a wide array of banking and
non-banking financial intermediaries. The banking sub-sector of the
system comprises Commercial and Merchant Banks, Development Bank and
Central Bank, as the Apex institution.
The non-bank financial institution sub-sector includes a wide range
of organizations operating as regulators, facilitators and
investors. The list includes the Securities and Exchange Commission
Market in Nigeria, to assess its impacts on Nigeria economy. In order
to achieve its major (SEC), the Stock Exchange, Stockbrokers, Regioners,
Insurance companies, Pensions and Provident funds and Investment
The financial market is really segmented into two major markets, which are:
i. Money Market
ii. Capital Market
The money market is the market for short-term funds an securities
including treasury bills, treasury certificates negotiable certificates
of deposits, commercial paper and other funds of less than one year
duration on the other hand, the capital market is the market for
long-term funds and securities whose tenure extends beyond one
year. These include long-term loans, mortgage, bond, preference share,
ordinary shares, federal government bonds and industrial loans.
The capital market is a complex institution and mechanism through
which intermediate and long run funds are made available to government,
business (firm) and individuals. The capital market therefore is an
instrumental arrangement that performs the function of mobilizing
private and public savings from surplus spending units and channeling
them to the deficit units for the production of goods and
services. Unlike the many money market which primarily exist as a means
of liquidity adjustment, the capital market provides a bridge of
transforming saving into long term investment by using equity bonds,
debentures, mortgages and investment stocks to facilitate
The market makes it possible for private and public sectors of the
economy to rise long-term capital to execute government development
programmes and from the expansion and modernization of the private
business to enhance outputs, employment and income. The capital market
is often described as an important part of country’s economy, which is
indispensable to economy growth and development. In short, it is a
place where nation’s wealth is bough.
The capital market itself is composed of:
i. Primary Market
ii. Secondary Market
Operators in the market include Merchant Banks, Stock broking Firms,
Issuing Houses, Development Finance Companies, the Central Bank,
Securities and Exchange Commission and the Stock Exchange. With this
background; this project attempts to review broad outline the extinction
of the Nigerian Capital market, its functions, growth and development
with emphasis on the period and challenge for the future especially in
the lights of the liberalized trade and exchange regimes adopted under
the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP).
1.1 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
The capital market is the long-terms and of the financial market that
is made up of market and institution which facilitate the issuance of
long term financial instruments.
Unlike the more market that provides basically short term funds, the
capital market provides funds to industries and government to meet their
long term capital requirements such as financial or tried investments
building, plant and machinery bridges and so on.
The following are research problem.
i. Why is there still low level of foreign investment in the market notwithstanding the reform?
ii. Is the capital market reform impacting positively on the economy?
iii. Is there any on the securities of the capital market attributed to the reform?
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this study is to evaluate the growth and
performance of the capital market in Nigerian to assess its impacts on
the Nigerian economy.
The following are the objectives of the study.
i. Examine the structures and the roles of the capital markets in Nigerians and the
ii. evolution of the market including institutional development market.
iii. Examine the instruments used in the market and their used fullness.
iv. Examines the future prospect of the Nigerian Capital market.
v. Find out the various problems facing the workings and the operations of the capital market.
vi. To evaluate the impact of such reforms on the Nigerian capital market.
1.3 RELEVANT RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What is the impact of the capital market on the National Income?
ii. What is the effect of the capital market on the share holder investment or in-course?
iii. What is the impact of the capital market on the earning per shares (EPS) of the shareholders?
iv. What is the effect of the capital market on the
effectiveness: Development of the institutional in the arrangement for
long-term financial assets, such as shares, debentures stock and
mortgage equity bond.
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESES
1. H0: There is no relationship between Capital market transaction and long
term sources of funds.
H1: There is relationship between Capital market transaction and long term sources of funds.
2. H0: There is no relationship between investment in capital market and the
earning per share (EPS) of the shareholders.
H1: There is relationship between investment in capital market and the earning per share (EPS) of the shareholders.
1.5 LIMITATION AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The Nigerian capital market since its inceptions in 1946. These will
include involution and impact of the sector on the growth of Nigeria
Since early 70s and 80s then it because a significant factors in financial system of the economy.
The study will further examine its roles during the Structural
Adjustment Programmes (SAP) and the impact its plays in the dominance of
the country financial base.
1.6 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The importance of the capital market in economic development cannot
be over emphasized. There is consensus of opinion that the nature and
the content of the not benefit which the capital market offer country be
judged by the effects on the mobilization of savings, capital inflow
and out flow the mobility of investible surplus funds, resources
allocation, distribution of income and wealth and the response of
Therefore, the development of the capital market should encourage
efficient mobilization of both domestic and foreign savings for
productive investment in order to achieve economic development. Without
productive investment, there will be no growth and saving and there
will be no investment.
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This study will make use of secondary data. The date at sources from
the various publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) such as
B. Williams, Economic and financial Review, Annual Report and
Statistical Bulletin: Lagos Publication form the Nigerian Sick Exchange
(NES), Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and other Financial
1.8 PLAN OF STUDY
This study tells us what the evolution functions and impacts of the capital market in Nigeria.
Chapter One is the introduction and explains what capital market is
all about. Chapter Two is the literature review and it review the work
of notable economists. Chapter Three will be scope of the study and
examines evolution, operation and impact or the sectors on the
economy. Chapter Four will be methodology and its analysis is based on
secondary data from central bank of Nigeria, Nigerian stock exchange
commission. Chapter Five will be the summary recommendation and
conclusion giving suggestion and ways to improve the operation on the
Nigeria capital markets.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERM AND CONCEPT
1. Capital market: The market is concerned with the mobilization and intermediation of long term funds.
2. Data Analysis: This refers to
the use of data to analysis the project work. This data include in
formulation got from official sources.
3. Methodology: This can be described as the method by which this study will be carried out.
4. Equity: This is the shareholder’s ownership interest in a company represented by their common and preferred stock.
5. Operators in the Market: They are
the players in the stock exchange, this players include the financial
intermediaries for statement long term fund form investors and
allocating some to institution that required them.
6. Securities: This can be defined as
documentary evidence of ownership or entitlement to part of the asset of
the issuing organization which may be a business, firm, government in
7. Secondary Market: This exists for the sale and purchase of old securities.
8. Primary Market: This market is for new securities. It is platform where a company or government raises funds for investment purposes.
AROWOLE E. A “The Development of Capital Market in Africa with
particular reference a Kenya and Nigeria IMF Staff paper (Washington)
volume 2 July 1997.
NWANKWO G.O: Money and Capital Market in Nigerian Today University of Lagos Press Page 16-135 1991.