production is an integral part of agriculture, the other half is animal
production or husbandry. Crop production can either be on a subsistence or
commercial level. It is subsistence when the farmer produces for himself and
family with a little for sale but it can be commercial when the farmer produces
in a large scale for market consumption. Whichever type of production a farmer
wants to embark upon, the knowledge of fertilizer and the nature of the soil is
of utmost importance as this would go a long way in determining the farmers
output. Since the 90’s agriculture in Nigeria that use to be at the front
burner as the nation’s chief income earner as suddenly taken a back stage as a
result of over dependency on crude. Agriculture overtime as been a major
sustainer of Nigeria’s economy before the discovery of crude oil otherwise
known as black gold (okoro 2005). Since its relegation to the background in
Nigeria, it has been practiced at an alarming peasant level with most of the
active stakeholder been largely subsistence agriculturists. Soil and fertilizer
type are very significant factors in crop production. It is highly
heterogeneous and this is the cause of differential rates of growth and yield
on a parcel of land planted to the same crop at the same time and with the same
management package (Olalokun, 1998). This is a source of frustration to crop
farming as farmers cannot think of a particular management package suitable for
their farmlands. Intensive cultivation and fertilizer application have become
the cardinal aspect of soil management especially in the West African sub
region. The Response to fertilizer
application in some cases is nothing to write home about; hence many farmers
have been forced to abandon their farmlands.
Types of fertilizers
can broadly be grouped into two parts namely:
the name implies, these are fertilizers derived from human excreta, animal and
plant matter such as compost and manure. Organic fertilizers generally have
lower nutrient concentration than inorganic fertilizers.
Advantages of organic
following are the advantages of organic fertilizers
They do not harm or burn plants when
excessively applied on crops.
They do not damage ground water.
When applied on farmlands, they have
long term positive effects on farmlands.
Organic fertilizers are renewable,
biodegradable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly.
Although rather expensive in packages,
you can make your own organic fertilizer by composting or find inexpensive
sources—such as local dairy farms—that may sell composted manure.
Disadvantages of organic
- Organic fertilizers break
down according to nature’s rules, so they may not release nutrients as
soon as you need them. You have to be patient – you won’t see improvement
overnight. In fact, you may actually see a deficiency in your plants
during the first couple of months until the first application breaks down.
Hang in there! You’ll most definitely be rewarded.
- Nutrient ratios are often
unknown, and the overall percentage is lower than chemical fertilizers.
However, some organic products are actually higher in certain nutrients.
fertilizers are synthetic fertilizers that are produced from chemical or
synthetic materials with defined proportion of desired chemicals that are
beneficial to crops.
Advantages of inorganic fertilizers
- Since nutrients are
available to the plants immediately, improvement occurs in days.
- They are highly analyzed to
produce the exact ratio of nutrients desired.
- Standardized labeling makes
ratios and chemical sources easy to understand.
- They’re inexpensive.
Disadvantages of inorganic
If excessively applied, they can burn
or harm plants.
When applied, it can cause water or
Chemical fertilizers tend to leach, or
filter away from the plants, requiring additional applications.
Long-term use of chemical fertilizer
can change the soil pH, upset beneficial microbial ecosystems, increase pests,
and even contribute to the release of greenhouse gases.
1.1. STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
In Nigeria today,
crop production has been largely inconsistent resulting to the lack of
knowledge of the combination of soil type and fertilizer. This has led to
general under production of crops in Nigeria. An adequate knowledge on the
right combination would help to increase crop production and maintain that for
a long time. There is equally a concern by farmers and researchers on the best
type of fertilizer between organic and inorganic fertilizers to be used to
increase crop yield. Researchers are also interested in knowing if inorganic or
organic fertilizers performances are soil based. Another problem of farmers is
to know the relationship between soil type and crop yield.
1.2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
study is aimed at the following:
know if there is a relationship and the nature of this relationship (if any)
between soil type, fertilizer type and crop yield.
know if there is a relationship between soil type and crop yield.
know if there is a relationship between fertilizer type and crop yield.
know the best combination of fertilizer and soil type that yields more crops.
1.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
significance or importance of this study is mainly to know if there is any
relationship between fertilizer type, nature of soil and crop yield. Another
importance of this survey is to know the soil type that encourages more crop
yield. A major significance of this
study is to know if there is a relationship between the following:
type and crop yield, soil fertilizer type and crop yield. The nature of these
relationships (if any) is also of utmost importance to us.
1.4. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE
the purpose of this study as the topic depicts, the scope of the study will be
focused on how crops respond to the types of fertilization in each of the
different types of soils. Another scope is to know if a relationship exists
between fertilizer type, soil type and crop yield. A major scope is to know the
best combination of fertilizer type and soil nature or type that enhances crop
yield. In the earlier stage of the study there is a
detailed coverage of the techniques and methods used in judging whether crops
responded well or not to fertilization by looking at their performances.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
is necessary to mention some of the limitation of this research work. The chief
limitation is the difficulty in obtaining relevant information in that a few of
our values were missing but these missing values were not statistically
significant enough to be noticed.
Notwithstanding, in the highlighted limitation
above, it is hoped that this
research will be useful to agricultural researchers, farmers and other similar
organization that may want to know the general response of crops to the types
of fertilization on different soils.
Organic: produced by or from living things.
Inorganic: not consisting of or coming from any living substances.
Fertilizer: a substance added to soil to
make plants grow more successfully.
Crops: a plant that is grown in large quantities, especially as food.
Synthetic: artificial; made by combining chemical substances rather than being
produced naturally by plants or animals.
Soil: the top layer of the earth, in which plants, trees etc grow.