This project work deals with a critical evaluation of Africanism in
relation to theme and techniques of Amos Tutuola’s novel – THE PALMWINE
DRINKARD. This study tends to examine the important of African culture
and promotion of its cultural heritage which was bastardized by the
colonial masters during colonization.
In the course of this essay, chapter one will deals with
introduction, background of the study, purpose of the study, scope and
limitation, justification, methodology and authorial background. Chapter
two forms the literature reviewed about past scholars’ view on
Africanism, the concept of Africanism as theme, the concept of
Africanism as techniques. Chapter three focuses on analysis of the
novel- the palm-wine Drinkard. Chapter four encompasses summary,
findings and conclusion to the whole essay. In our finding, we are able
- That “Africanism especially the aspect of African culture in
Tutuola’s texts enable the readers to appreciate and value their own
- That Africanism as a concept is capable of generating its own body of literature and attracts criticism to itself.
- That through the concept of Africanism, the efficacy of African culture has been proved using Tutuola’s text, the palmwine Drinkard.
Also, that the writing of the palmwine drinkard has been greatly influences by oral tradition.
Furthermore, it is discovered that Tutuola through the palmwine drinkard has proved that African writer are not writing in vacuum, but concentrate on Africa background.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Purpose of study
Significant of the study
Scope and limitation
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Concept of Africanism as Theme
Concept of Africanism as Techniques
CHAPTER THREE: TEXTUAL ANALYSIS
Setting of the Novel
The summary of the Novel
CHAPTER FOUR: SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
“Pan-African” unity is important in African identity politics,
because the African ancestry of Afro-American community cannot be
derived from an identifiable African people. Therefore, it has become
necessary to minimize the differences between the various peoples of
African favour of a generalized “African” heritage.
The word “Africanism” connotes pan-Africanism. Pan-Africanism
represents the aggregation and the projection of historical, cultural,
spiritual, artistic, scientific and philosophical legacies of Africans
from past times to the present. Pan-Africanism as an ethical system
traces its origin. From ancient times and promotes values that are
product of the African civilization and the struggles against slavery,
racism, colonialism and neo-colonialism.
However, Pan-Africanism is usually seen as a product of the European
slave trade. Enslaved Africans of diverse origins and their descendants
found themselves embedded in a system of exploitation where their
African origin becomes a sign of their service status. Pan-Africanism
set aside cultural differences, asserting the principality of these
shared experiences to foster solidarity and resistance to exploitation.
Alongside a large number of slave insurrections, by the end of the
eighteenth century political movement developed across the Americas
Europe and African which sought to weld these disparate movements into a
network of solidarity putting an end to these oppressions. In London,
the sons of Africa were political group addressed by quotona Ottobah
Lugoano in the 1791 edition of his book thoughts and sentiments on the
evil of slavery. The group addressed meetings and organized
letter-writing campaigns, published campaigning material and visited
parliament. They wrote to figures such as Granvile sharp, William Pitt
and other members of the white abolition movement, as well as king
George III and the prince of Wales, the future George IV.
Modern Pan-Africanism began around the beginning of the twentieth
century. The African Association latter renamed the Pan-African
Association, was organized by Henry Sylvester – Williams around 1887,
and their first conference was held in 1900.
The purpose of this study can be seen from different perspectives.
First and foremost, to see how Amos Tutuola has promoted the richness of
African culture. He wants Africans to cast a favourable look at their
indigenous traditions, unique cultural heritage forgetting the culture
impose on them during the colonial period, secondly, the study is
desirable at discussing how Africanism has been used as theme and
techniques in Tutuola’s the palmwine drinkard in order to convey his message to his readers.
- The Significance of the Study
This research work is significant in the literary world where it adds
to the body of knowledge and making known some hidden riches of the
book The Palmwine Drinkard. This work will convey why Tutuola
wrote in such of manner with imaginary pictures of places which are
often told in Yoruba myth. In this generation where culture and ethnics
are not well regarded, this work shall carve out our culture of
Africanism and enlighten all to value our culture.
Many researchers have worked on Amos Tutuola’s the Palmwine Drinkard discussing
different issues such as Ajayi A. (2002) “Language and style in Amos
Tutuola’s The Palm-wine Drunkard” brought out to appreciate the
asteriated use of language in the book and also Baiyerohi, P. (2008)
“Folklore in Amos Tutuola’s “The palm-wine Drinkard” to diverse
perspectives of folklore but for the purpose of this work, we shall be
using “Africanism” to analyze themes and techniques in The palmwine drinkard by Amos Tutuola.
From the foregoing, more researches have been made by scholars and students of English to analytically criticize Tutuola’s The Palm-wine Drinkard but
for the authenticity of this work, we shall be exploring the richness
of African culture messaged by Tutuola which from our understanding has
not been worked upon before now.
This work shall studied the concept of Africanism as portray in the palm-wine drinkard.
Furthermore, we shall be examining how the concept of Africanism, its
themes and techniques is been use to show the efficacy of African’s
culture and tradition.
Tutuola’s the palmwine Drinkard is our primary source of
information in this essay. All the concepts of Africanism used as themes
and techniques shall be critically examined.
Our secondary source of information will include books consulted in
the process of the study which are articles, done on the author which
can be found in journals, seminars, projects.
According to Parrinder (1954). Tutuola was born in the Nigerian city
of Abeokuta in 1920. His parents were Christians and cocoa farmer of
Yoruba race. At the age of twelve, he had began to attend the Anglican
central school in his home town. His formal education lasted only five
year as he had to leave school, when his father died. This made him to
go to Lagos and train as a blacksmith in 1939 from 1942 to 1945; he
practiced his trade for the Royal-Air force in Nigeria. After which, he
then worked as a messenger for the department of labour as a store
keeper for Radio Nigeria in Ibadan.
Furthermore, he married Alake and they were blessed with six
children, Tutuola was not highly educated. He wrote in English language
rather than his mother tongue, Yoruba language, because he wanted to
reach a wider audience to which this local material may have more
general interest but the English he uses in his stories is “not
published or sophisticated” instead, Tutuola used English language the
way it is being spoken in Nigeria by ordinary people.
Tutuola is a fascinating writer, whose works are interesting not only
because their style is so vibrant but also because they reflect Africa
folklore and tradition. Other books by Tutuola include, My life in the bush of Ghost (1952), Sumbi and the Satyrs of the dark jungle (1955), The Brave African thuntress (1958), herbalist of the remote Town (1981). He died at Jordan Hospital in Ibadan on June 7th, 1997.
Amos Tutuola was a recognized scholar in the world of folklore. He
won some honours and awards such as: Meridian award –odu themes (1983),
honorary fellow in writing of the University of Iowa USA (1983), the
second prize winner Grin Zane Cavour Arnold in literature in Italy
(1983). the honorary fellow of modern language Association of America
(1989), the Nobel patrol of arts pan African writer association (1992),
the special fellow National League of veteran journalist (1996) and the
Egba merit award (post honours) 1997.