THE ROLES OF FEMALE CHARACTER IN BENIN ORAL NARRATIVES
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THE ROLES OF FEMALE CHARACTER IN BENIN ORAL NARRATIVES
Type: Project Materials | Format: Ms Word | Attribute: Documentation Only | Pages: 65 Pages | Chapters: 1-5 chapters | Price: ₦ 3,000.00
PURPOSE OF STUDY
study examines the roles and /life style of females characters as minor
characters in Benin oral narrative. It appreciates the strengths;
examine the weakness, and points out the predicaments that these
historical Benin women went through.
This study attempts an
inquiry into the nature and roles of Benin women, and women at large in
oral narratives. “Akporobaro in page (535) of his book asked a question
“females are often presented as evil or wicked in oral literature ,Is
this fair to women’s character?” this study aims at answering the
question and debunking the idea that all female characters in every oral
narrative is bad.
The main purpose of my writing his essay is
contribute my quota in saving the Benin oral narrative from going into
extinction. Many years ago, there was something called moon light tales,
where parents, children and oral narrators will seat together and share
stories about legends, wicked people and heroes. This story were often
to teach moral lesson and to enlighten them of their past in order to
know why the present is the way it is, and to understand the future.
have chosen to write this essay because i discovered that some of the
tale are already forgotten, because stories are no longer being told as
they were in the past, but there are still many persons who want to read
them, especially little children who like o hear and tell stories. The
order is changing there are no more evening tales, if we do not document
his tales now they would certainly be forgotten soon
Scope of Study
project wok shows that women constitute an indispensable force in the
social, economic and political life of the society. In any story
pertaining to men, women are always there either as the agents that
makes him succeed and better or as the agents that pulls them down.
themes/ character that female character portray in the narrative would
be examined, the cultural perspective of the Edo people, the socio
cultural back ground of the Bini people, the [place of women in Edo
culture and African traditional festival which originated from myths and
This research work was carried out
by interviews with renowned oral artist from the Benin kingdom. A visit
to the Oba’s palace where I met some chiefs library attendants and the
Liberian who were willing to tell me all I needed to know welcomed me
with open arms
Also this topic and research work was got from
online research, book of popular scholars like Akporobaro and other oral
literature books which will be highlighted in the work cited
divine king slips of the Benin political, religious and social life
dates from at least he 15th century. The monarch or Oba ruled by virtue
of his descent from Oronmiyan, the legendary founder of the present
The Benin kingdom is different from the outlying
territories, which at various times accepted the Oba’s suzerainty
.Roughly coterminous with the present day Benin division of the Midwest
state of Nigeria, the Benin kingdom was the area in which the oba’s writ
ran most strongly and consistently. It was not a single administrative
unit, and its boundaries cannot be precisely drawn
kingdom may be defined as the area within which the oba was recognized
as the sole human arbiter of life and death. The oba is an embodiment of
tradition and culture. The inhabitant of the Benin kingdom consider
themselves to be the true “Eviien – OBA” ( SLAVES OF THE OBA). Meaning
free subject to the throne. They wear the same body markings (iwu) and
they regard themselves as superior to all other tribes
view of the past is deciding monarchical from the very beginning Benin
was raised by a series of kings called “ogisos” (ruler of the sky).
community or domestic ritual of the confirmatory or periodic nature
made reference to the worshipper allegiance to the Oba. Their titles,
regalia and ceremonial forms were all unique and a matter of style
rather than structure. Within a limited frame –work of control exercised
by the Oba- tribute, assistance in war facilities for Edo traders and
the people enjoyed internal autonomy
The last three centuries of
Benin’s in dependence saw a gradual shrinking of the area from which
her government could enforce delivering of tribute, military service and
secure safe passage for Benin traders. During the 18th century many
campaign were aimed at maintaining control over the western and eastern
area during Osemwende’s reign. Throughout the 19th century the later
area of Ekiti Yoruba become very important to the kingdom
western and so other side of the kingdom were a number of settlements
that lay outside the main wall, but within a second wall standing a mile
or so further out. some of these were inhabited by a group of ritual
specialists and were considered wards of the capital. For example
“Idumwun-Ihogbe” priest of the past kings in the same area were located
in the villagers of six out of the seven Uzama hereditary noble and
kingmakers. The seventh Uzama was the Oba’s eldest son and heir (the
Ebiken) whose court is at Uselu. Uselu also housed the court of the
Oba’s mother, who ranked the town chiefs rather than with the Uzama
hereditary Uzama and the two groups of Eghaebho, whose titles were
non-hereditary constituted three great order of chieftaincy which were
responsible for the continently an government
Origin and history of the Benin People
to Edo mythology, the Benin kingdom was founded the youngest of the
children of Osanobua (the high God). He was sent with his savior
brother, one of whom was the first king of Ife to live in the world
(Agbor). Each of them was allowed to take something with him, some took
wealth, material things and magical skills. But the youngest took a
snail shell with sand in it. When they arrived on earthy, the found it
covered with water. The youngest son puputurend the snail shell and the
sand in it spread out form land. Therefore, be became the owner of the
land and the first oba. His brothers had to come to him re barter their
possession in return of a place to settle. The youngest became the most
powerful ruler on earth.
The furless of the first dynasty re
know ogisors in 900A – D – 1200 AD. This dynasty ended at the time of
ogiso owodo, after the binis revolted against him and were left without a
ruler. The chief then sent to Oduduwa in ife asking him to provide one
of his son to rule over them. He sent Oronmiyan, who after staying in
Benin form some time decided that it is only a native that can rule the
Edo people. Before he left, he go the daughter bore a son who was found
to be dumbs (mute). Whenthe news got to ife, his father sent seven
“Akhure’ seeds (marbles) that the boy played game with when he won the
game he shouted “owonika which was corrupted to Eweka and that became
his name”. eweka was the first of the oba dynasty, and all subsequent
obas are his descendants.
1.5.1The location of Benin
Binis comprise a great number of local government area in Edo state,
they are: ovia south-west, Ovia north – east, Egor, Oredo, Ikpoba- okha,
Orhionmwon and uhumwode, which has its administrative head quarter in
Benin city. Hence, these areas lie between latitudes 6012N and longitude
5045E. these areas are populated by the Ibo speaking people on the
east, to the north and west; Yoruba and the Ijaw Urhobos and Itsekiri to
However, presently, the Binis occupy seven local government areas in Edo state.
1.5.2The language of the Binis
Benin people speak Edo language which belong to the family of language
referred to as the kwa family in Nigeria, there are over (four hundred
languages) and these languages fall into three major groups namely the
Niger – Congo which is the largest, fooled by nil – Congo, Nilosahra and
the afro – Asiatic group. The Nigeria a- Congo group to which the kwa
family belong, are language with which the Edo language has its own
orthography and phonology. And like other languages it has its idealist,
external and socio function.
1.5.3Occupation of the Benin people
Binis are traditionally small scale farmers. However, few are hunters
and fisher men. Most importantly, they are very artistic in nature;
hence, this trait dominates all aspects of Benin life. The Binis are
known for a artistic occupations such as : Brass work, sculpture, cloth
wearing and pottery. These artistic works have attracted long before now
international recognition to Nigeria. Hon Osayonmwanbo O. Ero in his
book the history of Benin, also states that:
objects were taken to Britain and eventually dispersed throughout the
world. This has sold Benin to the worlds as one of the greatest artistic
race in the universe (191).
The economy of the Benin kingdom was
lavishly flourished and prosperous with every good thing mainly
farmers, hunters, trade and craft men.
They grow food crops like
yam, plantain, melon, cassava etc. they also grow cash crops like oil
palm, rubber, cocoa, kolanut etc.
Hunting of bush in pigs,
various kinds of bush animals and other small animals is universal. All
men set traps on their farms and in the bush for protection of their
crops and to supplement their food supply most of them have guns which
were locally made. In the densely forest areas there are part time
Most of the villages have markets which belong
exclusively to them or re shared with one or more neighboring villages.
There are addition, a number of large feeder, markets which supply the
capital and other towns and side the kingdom with food stuffs. Bini
kingdom itself has four large markets. All the markets hold every day
except Oba market and Agba maekt which have their own markets days.
European rule, there was also trade with visiting ships at the port of
Ughoton, which was closely controlled by the state. The oba then had a
monopoly of the export of slaves, ivory, palm kernel, salt and pepper.
The economy was so organized that tributes came regularly into Benin
kingdom from all the oba’s subjects. Twice yearly every village was
required to send tribute to the oba in form of food stuffs, live stock
and even selves. Revenue was also derived from tolls collected the gates
in the city wall.
Overseas trades also come to trade in Benin,
and they also paid tribute to the oba from the choicest of their goods
which includes: guns, gun powder, mirrors, salt, clothes, watches, torch
The binis are also very good craft men. Important
indigenous crafts are made by special ward guilds. These includes,
bronze, caster, black smiths, brass smiths wood and ivory carvers,
leather workers, weaver of special embroider clothe etc.
1.5.4Religion of the Benin people
religion has its bearing from the normal African traditional beliefs
that African tradition is characterized by n central worships: since the
spirit of the dead ancestors are believed to be working for the
strength and prosperity of the people. If allows that human actions are
controlled by the spirit.
In Addition to the worship of the
supreme God and their ancestors, the people have another gods which they
worshiping deities like ogun (god of iron), shango (god of thrunder),
olukun (god of the sea).
The binis think of the universe as
being divided into two parts ‘Agbon” (the actual visible world in which
man lives) and ‘Erinvin” (heave and the invisible abode of numerous
deities). The binis classify the deities and he supernatural being into
groups of which God (osanobua), is the highest in the hierarchy. He is
the creator of all things in both heaven (erivin), and on earth (agbon).
In bini mythology he is pictured as a king going in splendor with many
wives and children among the children are said to be other deities.
believe that osanobua is the created and give of life, and should be
respected and after deceased so as to keep their lives. They therefore
solicit for his protection and guidance. They do this by bringing
offering of kolanut, native chalks, a nod gourds of palm wine which is a
said to represent cow to the shrine of Osanobua made with heap of sand
into which is in settled a stick adorned with a ship of white cloth. A
living pigeons is sometimes tied to the stick. Blood scarified is for
bidden in Osanobua shrine.
This research show that he Binis,
from time immemorial have been worshipping God and offering sacrifice
the gods before the coming of the white man. It is wrong of the
missionaries to say that the Binis have no idea about the supreme God.
a result of the coming of the white missionaries, Sonaboua is now
worship in churches by the Binis instead of shrines which was the place
of worship before ht coming of the missionaries.
In mythology, the sons of Osanobua were sent to the earth to perform various duties.
is ht eldest daughter of Osanobua, she plays a greater role in Bini
religious life. She is identified with the sea and associated primarily
with fertility (the give of children) and fortune. If a Bini woman needs
a child, she will be told by a diviner to offer sacrifices to Olokun
and thereafter, she become pregnant.
Other gods of the Binis include
god of iron which the Binis have in common with Yoruba. It is
worshipped especially with brass and iron smiths. Warriors and hunters
each have special Ogun shrine were they perform scarifies before
undertaking any expedition apart from this, many Bini worshipper of Ogun
have their various alter in their houses. Most of them a renowned
priest of ogun of which outsides come to them with request for special
prayers and curses. A curse in ogun is believed to be particularly
effective. the appropriate sacrifice are gods, tortoise, snail and palm
The god of medicine. It assistance must be
sought to ensure the effective use of all medicine. It is worshipped
especially by the professional native doctors. The priest usually hold
annual festival in honour of Osu.
During this period, all
medicine are believed to be strengthen. Things offered to sacrifice to
osu include: goat, fowl, tortoise, snail, mashed yam with palm oil,
pounded yam, kolanuts, cowries, e.t.c
Spirit of the departed (ancestors)
human dies his senior son after performing the burial rites, sets up an
alter in his honour if the dead father was himself a senior son, a
carved staff is added to the existing alter.
This alter consist
of mud built platform of which is placed cared staves, brass bell
ceremonies swords, etc. the senior son is the priest of his father
interceding on behalf of all the patlined descendants, through which his
linear male ancestors, the other members of his family are always
present whenever sacrifice are to be performed. Offerings include kola,
palm wine, native chalk, pounded yam, etc. are regularly offered
accompany by prayers for the welfare of members of the family. In time
of sickness and other catastrophe, goats, and fowl are scarified.
are men and women, some of whom turned themselves into natural elements
especially river, ponds, hills etc. they are mythical or semi mythical
relics of the past. Several of the more important ones are believed to
have been men of exceptional magical powers, who lived in the times of
eware. These deities have their cuts or shrines at their locations of
origin some of the important ones are:
Okuahe – worshipped at evbieko and Ikhuaniro
Ake – worshipped at ugo ne kin d wan
Ovato – worshipped at igieduma
Erede = worshipped at usen
Ise = worshiped at utekn
Ikohkh - worshipped at iguogho and ugabyon
1.5.5 Political administration of the Bini people.
people of Benin have a unique political structure. They see the oba as
the apex of administration who is semi divine and has absolute
legislative, executive and judicial powers. But in practice, these
powers are exercised by his clients of his behalf
the hierarchy of power, he is seen as directing after the gods and
ancestors of the land. The oba of Benin is neither are ritual figure
head nor a constitutional monarch, but political king, actively engaged
in competition for power.
The oba relies solely on his office holders for the administration of his territory and collection of revenue.
The uzamas (N’ihiron 7)
Benin customary tradition identifies the uzamas as the elders whose
request resulted in oronmiyan been sent fro from ife to a newly founded
dynasty in Benin. This is a hereditary body whose task is to act as
“king maker”. This is the highest ranking order of the chieftaincy
immediately after the oba. As the elders of the state they take the
position of greatest honour at the palace rituals, directly facing the
oba, during the ceremonial salutation.
Oliha is the uzama who
speak as the word that inaugurated a new reign, he is the only uzama
that keens during the ceremonial salutation. When he dies, it is the oba
that personally installs his heir. The uzama are seven.
The main palace administrative body compromises of their major division.
The iwebo, the iweguae, and the ibiwe. The associations are characterized by their primary duties at court.
first in ranks is the iwebo, he is in charge of the obas state
regularly including the throne. The iweguae division contains the oba’s
private apartment. The ibiwe are the keepers of the oba’s wives and
Politically there are two tiers of government in land: the centra land the provincial administration.
head of administration is the oba, but the day to day running of the
city depends on the palace chiefs and two associations known as the
“Eghaeub N’ ora” and “eghuebo N’ ogbe”.
The leadership of these
two associates is vested on one person known as the Iyase of Benin, the
traditional prime minister in the provincial setting, we have the
“obdiowere or enogie and edio”
1.5.6.Social life of the Bini people
The people of Benin are known to be people who receive people from diverse ethnic groups as brothers and sisters.
there mode of dressing is simple. The major traditional dressings of
the Benin people is what they now used in the place dance and t is
popularly known as “isekepaghe dance”. It involves men tying large
wrapper around their waist with beads to match while, the females use
wrapper across their chest with beads on their necks.
of dressing is also used during festivals and occasions okeigue,
marriage, burial and ceremony like it is customary in other African
communities, the instruction of marriage is reversed one in Benin. Most
of the marriages are arranged and contracted by the parents of the
couples in question, though it is not so rampant now. Also, there are
traditional rule to guild marriages. In a case or situation where a wife
is no longer wanted by her husband she is expected to pay back the
dowry paid on her.
1.5.7Benin oral literature and its classification
literature is described as that kind of literature that is first
composed and transmitted orally. It refers to all aspects of a people’s
The Benin oral literature is the historical and
geographical shadow of its people. It though the life of the people. It
is though its literature that the ideas philosophy an beliefs of the
people are preserved, maintained and transmitted orally from one
generation to another by way of daily practices.
The genres of
the Benin oral literature consist of “okha” – proses, ‘ekharea – verse
or poetry and “ughe’ – drama. Tese genres share common characteristics
in form, function and origin the creation of the Bini oral activities is
said to be collective since it is to serve practical needs and involved
the participating of every one.
There are innumerable purpose
served by oral literature in Benin community. It is an outlet to the
creative activities of the people. There are artist, poets, story
tellers and other whose urge to create must be given an outlet. In
traditional life, artist are not paid, but majority simply create for
the purpose of satisfying their creating urge.
function of oral literature is that of the entertainment which take
different forms. Oral literature serves the purpose of this reflects in
various ways. The moral(didactic) which are contained in a number of
stories and are aimed especially for the younger generation, since
children have not acquired much experienced, or knowledge of the world,
proverbs are power the instrument of moral instruction in oral
Children from the greater part of audience when
stories are being narrated. It is difficult to know who formulated
riddle and proverbs,, names of the original creator of the story, is not
known and people do not take credit for inventing a story or a
Oral literature like written literature is common
mirror in of life. It reflects what people do what, people think, how
they live, what value they hold, what joy and what sorrow they
experience. It is a full portrait of every aspect of Benin life.
of Benin oral literature Benin oral literature is classified into two
main categories: the major and the minor genre
The major genre
includes the oral poetry oral narratives and drama while the minor genre
constitute riddle, proverbs and tongue twister.
narrative which is our major business in this work, there are myth about
the deities and legend about past kings, and war heroes. they are
grouped together in a single category both are considered to be factual
accounts of past events, in contrast to folic also, which are organize s
legend and myths impact information that is important and regarded as
Abrams M. H. describe myths in a glossary of literary
terms as “ a system” of hereditary stories which were once believed to
be true by a particular cultural group and which seem to explain why the
world is as it is and things happen as they do and establish the
rationale for social customs and observances and the solution of rules
by which men conduct their ones (275).
Oral poetry is basically a
constant aspect Benin life as there is occasion in Benin life that is
not accompanied by songs, Births, marriage and funerals are occasions
for lyrical songs of beauty.
The drama involves festivals,
rituals and sacrifice. They are characterized by audience and the
performers who carry out the act. There is the use of costume to
facilitate the meaning of the event festival and ritual carried out.
minor genre are short witty statement and they are rhetorical in
nature. While riddle are considered to be meant for children, proverbs
are the palm oil with which words are eaten. Proverbs are made to impact
idea, wisdom and knowledge with profound meaning. Riddles have a impel
structure that takes the question and answer form. They are based on
keen observing a serve as entertainment.
1.6REVIEW OF CRITICISM OF RELATED LITERATURE
in literature is a concept that has caught the attention of literary
critics. Male and female critics have responded to these images of the
female and have written what they feel about it. Feminism is the
struggle of equality between male and female sexes.
“womanism is to feminist as purple is to lavender” Alice walker.
is basically African based, womanisms is a feminist term coined by
Alice Walker, it is reacting to the realization that feminism does not
encompass the perspective black women.
It is form of feminism
that is stronger in colour, nearly identical to “black feminism”.
However, womanism does not need to be prefaced by the word “black”, a
womanism is a woman who loves women and appreciates women’s culture and
power as something that is incorporated into the world as a whole.
Womanism includes the words “man”, recognizing that black men are an
integral part of black women’s lives as their children, lovers and
family members. Womanism accounts for the ways in which black women’s
support and empower blackmen, and serves as a tool for understanding the
black woman’s relationship to men as different from the white woman’s.
is unique because it does not necessarily imply any political position
or value system other than the honoring of black women’s strength and
experience. It recognizes women as survivors in a world that is
oppressive on multiple platforms, it seeks to celebrate the ways in
which women negotiate the oppression in their individual lives.
term womanism was used by author Alice Walker in her book “in search of
our mother’s Gardens womanist prose (1983). Although the terms was use
from to the 19th century. She was the first to use the term to describe
“black feminist or feminist of colour (Collins 2001: 10).
– Lafontant (2005) describes womanism as a “theoretical perspective
focused on the experience and knowledge bases of black women (which )
recognizes and interrogates the social realities of slavery’s
segregation sexism and economic exploitation’. (p437).
notes, the definitional dissection of the term woman is under goes
severe deconstruction in academic circles and f emnist literature alike
(Alexander Floyd and Simien, 2006). Importantly , beauboeuf lafnta
(2005) emphasize that not all black women are womanist, just like not
all women are feminists.
An important aspect of womanism is the
fundamental focus on racal inequalities (Patton, 2001). As ogunyemi
(1985) outlines, “black womanism is a philosophy that celebrates black
roots, the ideas of black life, whiles giving a balance presentation of
black womandom” (7. 2)
From Walker (1983) we also appreciate the
womanism commitments to whilenss and loving “other women sexually and
non sexually” (p. 12). Equally, womanism provides equal and viable
representation of black male struggles (Collins, 2001).
womanism encompasses black gendered struggle (Collins, 2007), while
possession associative commonalities with the separate notion of
feminism, black feminism Africana womanism and secular womanism (Thnon,
However, we are still going to examine what feminist
scholar and critics have said about feminism. Feminism is a concept
described in world book encyclopedia vol. 7 as
“The belief that woman should
Have economic, political and
Social equality with men. This
Movement could also be called.
The women’s liberation or women’s right movement (46)
have studied images of female character in specific African works, one
of such critics is Charles Larson, in his book the emergency of African
fiction, he states that women in Anglophone east and south African
writing, play more significant roles that African women in west African
women in west African fiction Larson writes.
“In many early west
African novels, the female character plays almost no significant party.
If they are present at all they are mere object performing a function”
In an article entitled ‘women and African literature’.
Marion Kilson examines the relationship between the African women with
and her art. She explores the similarities and differences in roles
played by women in works of ata aiddoo and Grace go she notes that the
portray women as mothers, wives and daughter. Maternal theme in Aidoos
stories are the joy and inestimable value of children to women and
anguish of childlessness when through death or bareness.
is the need of African women to drawn more attention to authentic
portative of African women inr el life situations. This idea was brought
forward in an article entitled “the mother and the whore. Images and
stereotype image of the women who are characterized as mothers or
prostitute in contemporary works. They only virtuous woman according to
watvhes’ stud is the ‘mother” she therefore calls for African women to
control this misrepresentation other image of African women in African
we value and prize the act of being a woman as highly as we value the
fact of being human. We do not accept the cultural images of women s in
competent petty, irresponsible or weak. Rather we affirm our capital to
be strong, capable intelligent, successful, ethical human begins (4).
is on record that notable cotemporary Nigerian writer have at one time
or the other and in varied degrees of commitments, expressed these
laudable objectives. For example Ifeoma Okoye and Zaynab Alakai amongst
other contemporary female writes.
A critical Liz Kelly (1988) define feminism thus:
“feminism minimally speaking is a belief that women are oppressed and a commitment to end that oppression(163).
as a concept is rather protean and as such, it becomes difficult to
arrive at a universally acceptable definition it is in recognition of
the variations in definition that put Sheila (1980) observes.
do not agree among themselves on all inclusive and universally
acceptable definition none term feminism. The term is usually depending
on one’s political, sociological observations and goals, one’s
individual aspirations for womanhood and for humanity, one understanding
or interpretation of the word woman and several other factors to the
term feminism can mean different things and have variety of faction
THE ROLES OF FEMALE CHARACTER IN BENIN ORAL NARRATIVES
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Feminist do not agree among themselves on all inclusive and universally acceptable definition none term feminism. The term is usually depending on one’s political, sociological observations and goals, one’s individual aspirations for womanhood and for humanity, one understanding or interpretation of the word woman and several other factors to the term feminism can mean different things and have variety of faction (4). .. english education project topics
THE ROLES OF FEMALE CHARACTER IN BENIN ORAL NARRATIVES