THE ROLES OF FEMALE CHARACTER IN BENIN ORAL NARRATIVES

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THE ROLES OF FEMALE CHARACTER IN BENIN ORAL NARRATIVES
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

PURPOSE OF STUDY

This study examines the roles and /life style of females characters as minor characters in Benin oral narrative. It appreciates the strengths; examine the weakness, and points out the predicaments that these historical Benin women went through.

This study attempts an inquiry into the nature and roles of Benin women, and women at large in oral narratives. “Akporobaro in page (535) of his book asked a question “females are often presented as evil or wicked in oral literature ,Is this fair to women’s character?” this study aims at answering the question and debunking the idea that all female characters in every oral narrative is bad.

The main purpose of my writing his essay is contribute my quota in saving the Benin oral narrative from going into extinction. Many years ago, there was something called moon light tales, where parents, children and oral narrators will seat together and share stories about legends, wicked people and heroes. This story were often to teach moral lesson and to enlighten them of their past in order to know why the present is the way it is, and to understand the future.

I have chosen to write this essay because i discovered that some of the tale are already forgotten, because stories are no longer being told as they were in the past, but there are still many persons who want to read them, especially little children who like o hear and tell stories. The order is changing there are no more evening tales, if we do not document his tales now they would certainly be forgotten soon 

Scope of Study

This project wok shows that women constitute an indispensable force in the social, economic and political life of the society. In any story pertaining to men, women are always there either as the agents that makes him succeed and better or as the agents that pulls them down.

He themes/ character that female character portray in the narrative would be examined, the cultural perspective of the Edo people, the socio cultural back ground of the Bini people, the [place of women in Edo culture and African traditional festival which originated from myths and legends 

Methodology 

This research work was carried out by interviews with renowned oral artist from the Benin kingdom. A visit to the Oba’s palace where I met some chiefs library attendants and the Liberian who were willing to tell me all I needed to know welcomed me with open arms 

Also this topic and research work was got from online research, book of popular scholars like Akporobaro and other oral literature books which will be highlighted in the work cited 

Socio-cultural Background 

The divine king slips of the Benin political, religious and social life dates from at least he 15th century. The monarch or Oba ruled by virtue of his descent from Oronmiyan, the legendary founder of the present dynasty.

The Benin kingdom is different from the outlying territories, which at various times accepted the Oba’s suzerainty .Roughly coterminous with the present day Benin division of the Midwest state of Nigeria, the Benin kingdom was the area in which the oba’s writ ran most strongly and consistently. It was not a single administrative unit, and its boundaries cannot be precisely drawn 

The Benin kingdom may be defined as the area within which the oba was recognized as the sole human arbiter of life and death. The oba is an embodiment of tradition and culture. The inhabitant of the Benin kingdom consider themselves to be the true “Eviien – OBA” ( SLAVES OF THE OBA). Meaning free subject to the throne. They wear the same body markings (iwu) and they regard themselves as superior to all other tribes 

The Edo view of the past is deciding monarchical from the very beginning Benin was raised by a series of kings called “ogisos” (ruler of the sky).

Every community or domestic ritual of the confirmatory or periodic nature made reference to the worshipper allegiance to the Oba. Their titles, regalia and ceremonial forms were all unique and a matter of style rather than structure. Within a limited frame –work of control exercised by the Oba- tribute, assistance in war facilities for Edo traders and the people enjoyed internal autonomy 

The last three centuries of Benin’s in dependence saw a gradual shrinking of the area from which her government could enforce delivering of tribute, military service and secure safe passage for Benin traders. During the 18th century many campaign were aimed at maintaining control over the western and eastern area during Osemwende’s reign. Throughout the 19th century the later area of Ekiti Yoruba become very important to the kingdom 

On the western and so other side of the kingdom were a number of settlements that lay outside the main wall, but within a second wall standing a mile or so further out. some of these were inhabited by a group of ritual specialists and were considered wards of the capital. For example “Idumwun-Ihogbe” priest of the past kings in the same area were located in the villagers of six out of the seven Uzama hereditary noble and kingmakers. The seventh Uzama was the Oba’s eldest son and heir (the Ebiken) whose court is at Uselu. Uselu also housed the court of the Oba’s mother, who ranked the town chiefs rather than with the Uzama

The hereditary Uzama and the two groups of Eghaebho, whose titles were non-hereditary constituted three great order of chieftaincy which were responsible for the continently an government 

Origin and history of the Benin People 

According to Edo mythology, the Benin kingdom was founded the youngest of the children of Osanobua (the high God). He was sent with his savior brother, one of whom was the first king of Ife to live in the world (Agbor). Each of them was allowed to take something with him, some took wealth, material things and magical skills. But the youngest took a snail shell with sand in it. When they arrived on earthy, the found it covered with water. The youngest son puputurend the snail shell and the sand in it spread out form land. Therefore, be became the owner of the land and the first oba. His brothers had to come to him re barter their possession in return of a place to settle. The youngest became the most powerful ruler on earth. 

The furless of the first dynasty re know ogisors in 900A – D – 1200 AD. This dynasty ended at the time of ogiso owodo, after the binis revolted against him and were left without a ruler. The chief then sent to Oduduwa in ife asking him to provide one of his son to rule over them. He sent Oronmiyan, who after staying in Benin form some time decided that it is only a native that can rule the Edo people. Before he left, he go the daughter bore a son who was found to be dumbs (mute). Whenthe news got to ife, his father sent seven “Akhure’ seeds (marbles) that the boy played game with when he won the game he shouted “owonika which was corrupted to Eweka and that became his name”. eweka was the first of the oba dynasty, and all subsequent obas are his descendants.

1.5.1The location of Benin

The Binis comprise a great number of local government area in Edo state, they are: ovia south-west, Ovia north – east, Egor, Oredo, Ikpoba- okha, Orhionmwon and uhumwode, which has its administrative head quarter in Benin city. Hence, these areas lie between latitudes 6012N and longitude 5045E. these areas are populated by the Ibo speaking people on the east, to the north and west; Yoruba and the Ijaw Urhobos and Itsekiri to the south. 

However, presently, the Binis occupy seven local government areas in Edo state. 

1.5.2The language of the Binis

The Benin people speak Edo language which belong to the family of language referred to as the kwa family in Nigeria, there are over (four hundred languages) and these languages fall into three major groups namely the Niger – Congo which is the largest, fooled by nil – Congo, Nilosahra and the afro – Asiatic group. The Nigeria a- Congo group to which the kwa family belong, are language with which the Edo language has its own orthography and phonology. And like other languages it has its idealist, external and socio function. 

1.5.3Occupation of the Benin people

The Binis are traditionally small scale farmers. However, few are hunters and fisher men. Most importantly, they are very artistic in nature; hence, this trait dominates all aspects of Benin life. The Binis are known for a artistic occupations such as : Brass work, sculpture, cloth wearing and pottery. These artistic works have attracted long before now international recognition to Nigeria. Hon Osayonmwanbo O. Ero in his book the history of Benin, also states that: 

Numerous arts objects were taken to Britain and eventually dispersed throughout the world. This has sold Benin to the worlds as one of the greatest artistic race in the universe (191).

The economy of the Benin kingdom was lavishly flourished and prosperous with every good thing mainly farmers, hunters, trade and craft men. 

They grow food crops like yam, plantain, melon, cassava etc. they also grow cash crops like oil palm, rubber, cocoa, kolanut etc. 

Hunting of bush in pigs, various kinds of bush animals and other small animals is universal. All men set traps on their farms and in the bush for protection of their crops and to supplement their food supply most of them have guns which were locally made. In the densely forest areas there are part time special hunters. 

Most of the villages have markets which belong exclusively to them or re shared with one or more neighboring villages. There are addition, a number of large feeder, markets which supply the capital and other towns and side the kingdom with food stuffs. Bini kingdom itself has four large markets. All the markets hold every day except Oba market and Agba maekt which have their own markets days. 

Before European rule, there was also trade with visiting ships at the port of Ughoton, which was closely controlled by the state. The oba then had a monopoly of the export of slaves, ivory, palm kernel, salt and pepper. The economy was so organized that tributes came regularly into Benin kingdom from all the oba’s subjects. Twice yearly every village was required to send tribute to the oba in form of food stuffs, live stock and even selves. Revenue was also derived from tolls collected the gates in the city wall. 

Overseas trades also come to trade in Benin, and they also paid tribute to the oba from the choicest of their goods which includes: guns, gun powder, mirrors, salt, clothes, watches, torch lights etc. 

The binis are also very good craft men. Important indigenous crafts are made by special ward guilds. These includes, bronze, caster, black smiths, brass smiths wood and ivory carvers, leather workers, weaver of special embroider clothe etc. 

1.5.4Religion of the Benin people

Benin religion has its bearing from the normal African traditional beliefs that African tradition is characterized by n central worships: since the spirit of the dead ancestors are believed to be working for the strength and prosperity of the people. If allows that human actions are controlled by the spirit. 

In Addition to the worship of the supreme God and their ancestors, the people have another gods which they worshiping deities like ogun (god of iron), shango (god of thrunder), olukun (god of the sea). 

The binis think of the universe as being divided into two parts ‘Agbon” (the actual visible world in which man lives) and ‘Erinvin” (heave and the invisible abode of numerous deities). The binis classify the deities and he supernatural being into groups of which God (osanobua), is the highest in the hierarchy. He is the creator of all things in both heaven (erivin), and on earth (agbon). In bini mythology he is pictured as a king going in splendor with many wives and children among the children are said to be other deities.

They believe that osanobua is the created and give of life, and should be respected and after deceased so as to keep their lives. They therefore solicit for his protection and guidance. They do this by bringing offering of kolanut, native chalks, a nod gourds of palm wine which is a said to represent cow to the shrine of Osanobua made with heap of sand into which is in settled a stick adorned with a ship of white cloth. A living pigeons is sometimes tied to the stick. Blood scarified is for bidden in Osanobua shrine. 

This research show that he Binis, from time immemorial have been worshipping God and offering sacrifice the gods before the coming of the white man. It is wrong of the missionaries to say that the Binis have no idea about the supreme God. 

As a result of the coming of the white missionaries, Sonaboua is now worship in churches by the Binis instead of shrines which was the place of worship before ht coming of the missionaries. 

In mythology, the sons of Osanobua were sent to the earth to perform various duties. 

OLOKUN

She is ht eldest daughter of Osanobua, she plays a greater role in Bini religious life. She is identified with the sea and associated primarily with fertility (the give of children) and fortune. If a Bini woman needs a child, she will be told by a diviner to offer sacrifices to Olokun and thereafter, she become pregnant. 

Other gods of the Binis include

OGUN

The god of iron which the Binis have in common with Yoruba. It is worshipped especially with brass and iron smiths. Warriors and hunters each have special Ogun shrine were they perform scarifies before undertaking any expedition apart from this, many Bini worshipper of Ogun have their various alter in their houses. Most of them a renowned priest of ogun of which outsides come to them with request for special prayers and curses. A curse in ogun is believed to be particularly effective. the appropriate sacrifice are gods, tortoise, snail and palm oil. 

OSU

The god of medicine. It assistance must be sought to ensure the effective use of all medicine. It is worshipped especially by the professional native doctors. The priest usually hold annual festival in honour of Osu. 

During this period, all medicine are believed to be strengthen. Things offered to sacrifice to osu include: goat, fowl, tortoise, snail, mashed yam with palm oil, pounded yam, kolanuts, cowries, e.t.c 

Spirit of the departed (ancestors) 

When human dies his senior son after performing the burial rites, sets up an alter in his honour if the dead father was himself a senior son, a carved staff is added to the existing alter. 

This alter consist of mud built platform of which is placed cared staves, brass bell ceremonies swords, etc. the senior son is the priest of his father interceding on behalf of all the patlined descendants, through which his linear male ancestors, the other members of his family are always present whenever sacrifice are to be performed. Offerings include kola, palm wine, native chalk, pounded yam, etc. are regularly offered accompany by prayers for the welfare of members of the family. In time of sickness and other catastrophe, goats, and fowl are scarified. 

Hero deities. 

These are men and women, some of whom turned themselves into natural elements especially river, ponds, hills etc. they are mythical or semi mythical relics of the past. Several of the more important ones are believed to have been men of exceptional magical powers, who lived in the times of eware. These deities have their cuts or shrines at their locations of origin some of the important ones are:

Okuahe – worshipped at evbieko and Ikhuaniro

Ake – worshipped at ugo ne kin d wan 

Ovato – worshipped at igieduma

Erede = worshipped at usen 

Ise = worshiped at utekn

Ikohkh - worshipped at iguogho and ugabyon 

1.5.5 Political administration of the Bini people.

The people of Benin have a unique political structure. They see the oba as the apex of administration who is semi divine and has absolute legislative, executive and judicial powers. But in practice, these powers are exercised by his clients of his behalf 

The Oba

In the hierarchy of power, he is seen as directing after the gods and ancestors of the land. The oba of Benin is neither are ritual figure head nor a constitutional monarch, but political king, actively engaged in competition for power. 

The oba relies solely on his office holders for the administration of his territory and collection of revenue.

The uzamas (N’ihiron 7)

The Benin customary tradition identifies the uzamas as the elders whose request resulted in oronmiyan been sent fro from ife to a newly founded dynasty in Benin. This is a hereditary body whose task is to act as “king maker”. This is the highest ranking order of the chieftaincy immediately after the oba. As the elders of the state they take the position of greatest honour at the palace rituals, directly facing the oba, during the ceremonial salutation. 

Oliha is the uzama who speak as the word that inaugurated a new reign, he is the only uzama that keens during the ceremonial salutation. When he dies, it is the oba that personally installs his heir. The uzama are seven. 

The main palace administrative body compromises of their major division. 

The iwebo, the iweguae, and the ibiwe. The associations are characterized by their primary duties at court. 

The first in ranks is the iwebo, he is in charge of the obas state regularly including the throne. The iweguae division contains the oba’s private apartment. The ibiwe are the keepers of the oba’s wives and children.

Politically there are two tiers of government in land: the centra land the provincial administration. 

The head of administration is the oba, but the day to day running of the city depends on the palace chiefs and two associations known as the “Eghaeub N’ ora” and “eghuebo N’ ogbe”.

The leadership of these two associates is vested on one person known as the Iyase of Benin, the traditional prime minister in the provincial setting, we have the “obdiowere or enogie and edio”

1.5.6.Social life of the Bini people

The people of Benin are known to be people who receive people from diverse ethnic groups as brothers and sisters. 

Culturally, there mode of dressing is simple. The major traditional dressings of the Benin people is what they now used in the place dance and t is popularly known as “isekepaghe dance”. It involves men tying large wrapper around their waist with beads to match while, the females use wrapper across their chest with beads on their necks. 

This kind of dressing is also used during festivals and occasions okeigue, marriage, burial and ceremony like it is customary in other African communities, the instruction of marriage is reversed one in Benin. Most of the marriages are arranged and contracted by the parents of the couples in question, though it is not so rampant now. Also, there are traditional rule to guild marriages. In a case or situation where a wife is no longer wanted by her husband she is expected to pay back the dowry paid on her.

1.5.7Benin oral literature and its classification

Oral literature is described as that kind of literature that is first composed and transmitted orally. It refers to all aspects of a people’s culture. 

The Benin oral literature is the historical and geographical shadow of its people. It though the life of the people. It is though its literature that the ideas philosophy an beliefs of the people are preserved, maintained and transmitted orally from one generation to another by way of daily practices. 

The genres of the Benin oral literature consist of “okha” – proses, ‘ekharea – verse or poetry and “ughe’ – drama. Tese genres share common characteristics in form, function and origin the creation of the Bini oral activities is said to be collective since it is to serve practical needs and involved the participating of every one. 

There are innumerable purpose served by oral literature in Benin community. It is an outlet to the creative activities of the people. There are artist, poets, story tellers and other whose urge to create must be given an outlet. In traditional life, artist are not paid, but majority simply create for the purpose of satisfying their creating urge. 

One major function of oral literature is that of the entertainment which take different forms. Oral literature serves the purpose of this reflects in various ways. The moral(didactic) which are contained in a number of stories and are aimed especially for the younger generation, since children have not acquired much experienced, or knowledge of the world, proverbs are power the instrument of moral instruction in oral literature. 

Children from the greater part of audience when stories are being narrated. It is difficult to know who formulated riddle and proverbs,, names of the original creator of the story, is not known and people do not take credit for inventing a story or a proverb. 

Oral literature like written literature is common mirror in of life. It reflects what people do what, people think, how they live, what value they hold, what joy and what sorrow they experience. It is a full portrait of every aspect of Benin life. 

Classification of Benin oral literature Benin oral literature is classified into two main categories: the major and the minor genre

The major genre includes the oral poetry oral narratives and drama while the minor genre constitute riddle, proverbs and tongue twister. 

On prose narrative which is our major business in this work, there are myth about the deities and legend about past kings, and war heroes. they are grouped together in a single category both are considered to be factual accounts of past events, in contrast to folic also, which are organize s legend and myths impact information that is important and regarded as truth.

Abrams M. H. describe myths in a glossary of literary terms as “ a system” of hereditary stories which were once believed to be true by a particular cultural group and which seem to explain why the world is as it is and things happen as they do and establish the rationale for social customs and observances and the solution of rules by which men conduct their ones (275). 

Oral poetry is basically a constant aspect Benin life as there is occasion in Benin life that is not accompanied by songs, Births, marriage and funerals are occasions for lyrical songs of beauty. 

The drama involves festivals, rituals and sacrifice. They are characterized by audience and the performers who carry out the act. There is the use of costume to facilitate the meaning of the event festival and ritual carried out. 

The minor genre are short witty statement and they are rhetorical in nature. While riddle are considered to be meant for children, proverbs are the palm oil with which words are eaten. Proverbs are made to impact idea, wisdom and knowledge with profound meaning. Riddles have a impel structure that takes the question and answer form. They are based on keen observing a serve as entertainment. 

1.6REVIEW OF CRITICISM OF RELATED LITERATURE

Feminism in literature is a concept that has caught the attention of literary critics. Male and female critics have responded to these images of the female and have written what they feel about it. Feminism is the struggle of equality between male and female sexes. 

“womanism is to feminist as purple is to lavender” Alice walker. 

Womanish is basically African based, womanisms is a feminist term coined by Alice Walker, it is reacting to the realization that feminism does not encompass the perspective black women. 

It is form of feminism that is stronger in colour, nearly identical to “black feminism”. However, womanism does not need to be prefaced by the word “black”, a womanism is a woman who loves women and appreciates women’s culture and power as something that is incorporated into the world as a whole. Womanism includes the words “man”, recognizing that black men are an integral part of black women’s lives as their children, lovers and family members. Womanism accounts for the ways in which black women’s support and empower blackmen, and serves as a tool for understanding the black woman’s relationship to men as different from the white woman’s. 

Womanism is unique because it does not necessarily imply any political position or value system other than the honoring of black women’s strength and experience. It recognizes women as survivors in a world that is oppressive on multiple platforms, it seeks to celebrate the ways in which women negotiate the oppression in their individual lives. 

The term womanism was used by author Alice Walker in her book “in search of our mother’s Gardens womanist prose (1983). Although the terms was use from to the 19th century. She was the first to use the term to describe “black feminist or feminist of colour (Collins 2001: 10). 

Beauboeuf – Lafontant (2005) describes womanism as a “theoretical perspective focused on the experience and knowledge bases of black women (which ) recognizes and interrogates the social realities of slavery’s segregation sexism and economic exploitation’. (p437). 

As Hill notes, the definitional dissection of the term woman is under goes severe deconstruction in academic circles and f emnist literature alike (Alexander Floyd and Simien, 2006). Importantly , beauboeuf lafnta (2005) emphasize that not all black women are womanist, just like not all women are feminists. 

An important aspect of womanism is the fundamental focus on racal inequalities (Patton, 2001). As ogunyemi (1985) outlines, “black womanism is a philosophy that celebrates black roots, the ideas of black life, whiles giving a balance presentation of black womandom” (7. 2) 

From Walker (1983) we also appreciate the womanism commitments to whilenss and loving “other women sexually and non sexually” (p. 12). Equally, womanism provides equal and viable representation of black male struggles (Collins, 2001). 

Essentially, womanism encompasses black gendered struggle (Collins, 2007), while possession associative commonalities with the separate notion of feminism, black feminism Africana womanism and secular womanism (Thnon, 2007). 

However, we are still going to examine what feminist scholar and critics have said about feminism. Feminism is a concept described in world book encyclopedia vol. 7 as

“The belief that woman should 

Have economic, political and

Social equality with men. This

Movement could also be called. 

The women’s liberation or women’s right movement (46)

Critics have studied images of female character in specific African works, one of such critics is Charles Larson, in his book the emergency of African fiction, he states that women in Anglophone east and south African writing, play more significant roles that African women in west African women in west African fiction Larson writes. 

“In many early west African novels, the female character plays almost no significant party. If they are present at all they are mere object performing a function” (74). 

In an article entitled ‘women and African literature’. Marion Kilson examines the relationship between the African women with and her art. She explores the similarities and differences in roles played by women in works of ata aiddoo and Grace go she notes that the portray women as mothers, wives and daughter. Maternal theme in Aidoos stories are the joy and inestimable value of children to women and anguish of childlessness when through death or bareness. 

There is the need of African women to drawn more attention to authentic portative of African women inr el life situations. This idea was brought forward in an article entitled “the mother and the whore. Images and stereotype image of the women who are characterized as mothers or prostitute in contemporary works. They only virtuous woman according to watvhes’ stud is the ‘mother” she therefore calls for African women to control this misrepresentation other image of African women in African writing 

Ruth Sheila

91980) declares. 

As feminist, we value and prize the act of being a woman as highly as we value the fact of being human. We do not accept the cultural images of women s in competent petty, irresponsible or weak. Rather we affirm our capital to be strong, capable intelligent, successful, ethical human begins (4). 

It is on record that notable cotemporary Nigerian writer have at one time or the other and in varied degrees of commitments, expressed these laudable objectives. For example Ifeoma Okoye and Zaynab Alakai amongst other contemporary female writes. 

A critical Liz Kelly (1988) define feminism thus: 

“feminism minimally speaking is a belief that women are oppressed and a commitment to end that oppression(163). 

Feminism as a concept is rather protean and as such, it becomes difficult to arrive at a universally acceptable definition it is in recognition of the variations in definition that put Sheila (1980) observes. 

Feminist do not agree among themselves on all inclusive and universally acceptable definition none term feminism. The term is usually depending on one’s political, sociological observations and goals, one’s individual aspirations for womanhood and for humanity, one understanding or interpretation of the word woman and several other factors to the term feminism can mean different things and have variety of faction (4).

THE ROLES OF FEMALE CHARACTER IN BENIN ORAL NARRATIVES

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Reviews: A Review on the roles of female character in benin oral narratives , roles, female, character project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
Feminist do not agree among themselves on all inclusive and universally acceptable definition none term feminism. The term is usually depending on one’s political, sociological observations and goals, one’s individual aspirations for womanhood and for humanity, one understanding or interpretation of the word woman and several other factors to the term feminism can mean different things and have variety of faction (4). .. english education project topics

THE ROLES OF FEMALE CHARACTER IN BENIN ORAL NARRATIVES

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