This project work was carried out to determine the role of management
in motivating workers in banking sector, using first Bank Nig. Plc,
Okpara Avenue, Enugu State as a case study. The purpose of this study is
to find out how workers in the banking sector derive motivation, taking
into consideration the impact of management influence and the effect of
this on productivity. Also research questions and hypothesis were
stated to be used in generalization towards the end of this with the
appropriates tools. The research design used in this study is
descriptive survey method, were simple random sampling was used to
obtain information as to the population of the firm, getting a sample
size of 44 persons. The data collection was based on primary data like
questionnaire, personal interviews and data like bank‟s annual reports
were also used. Statistical tools like chi-square, simple percentage
were used to analyze the data.The research findings showed that worker‟s
productivity does not necessarily depend on motivation since every
employee have a target to meet and also has obligations to carryout. It
was also established that motivation has relationship with personnel
officers‟ productivity but the basic fact underlying the issue is that
what appear to create motivation on one personnel in a particular bank
might not act similarly in other bank, most especially in commercial
banks. This can be deduced in the sense that motivation does not work in
all situations as panaceas to increase productivity in all corporate
organizations. Every indication shows that environment and fringe
benefits play significant role in personnel manager‟s job satisfaction.
Based on the findings above, the researcher made this recommendation on
how motivation in the banking sector can be enhanced to have an impact
in productivity. The management should be able to identify what can
actually make the workers in their own banks have adequate motivation
and whether such motivation packages are capable of boosting high
productivity. Lastly, the management should also endeavor to include
some packages like compensation that will ensure adequate job security
and if possible work towards developing a policy for pensionable
One of the most significant developments in the field of the
organization in recent times is the increasing importance given to human
resources. More and more attention is being paid into motivational
aspects of human personality, particularly the need of self-esteem group
belonging and self actualization. This new awakening of humanism and
humanization all over the world has infact enlarged the scope of
applying principle of personnel management in organizations. The
development of people, their competencies and the process developing the
total organization are the main concerns of personnel managers.
Extension of organizations in banking sectors face the major problems
of professional incompetence and lack of motivation among their
employees. Further more, many banking sectors in Nigeria do not have a
well defined system of personnel management. Proper planning and
management of workers within extensions of organization is essential to
increase the capabilities, motivation and over all effectiveness of
personnel. Keeping this in view, this research discusses the various
dimensions of workers as applicable to extension organizations.
One of the major role of a personnel manager is to recruit, select
and place workers at their area of specialty; in other to boost these
personnel functions and enable them work effectively, they must be
adequately compensated. Comensation being a source of motivation
increases the performance of personnel in workplace. Management must
first consider what they can reasonably afford to pay their personnel
workers and the ramification of their decision; will they affect
workers‟ turnover and productivity. In addition, management play vital
role in motivating workers and they solely believe that pay can
influence their work ethic and behavior towards their job. Moreover,
social, economic, legal and political factor also exert influence on the
rate at which personnel managers operate.
It is hereby articulated that the increase of management creating
incentives as a source of motivation tends to boost and increase the
rate of response of employees in an organization thereby increasing
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The task facing management in various banking sector in recent times
is that of determining what should constitute adequate motivation
for the workers. To achieve these objectives,the
environment for the performance of the individuals working in group
towards accomplishing common objective must be maintained. Personnel
managers as well as employees are the single most important source in
any firm. They are the keys to higher productivity and efficiency. Most
managers have discovered that productive work cannot be achieved through
command, order or executive fiat. The primary aim of personnel managers
is to recruit, select and place were they rightly suit, in order words,
improved personnel managers productivity and efficiency depends on
individuals motivation that gives them job satisfaction. The themes of
motivation suggests that personnels who have a clear sense of their own
contribution to their firm and who receive effective feedback from their
manager are more likely to experience job satisfaction than those who
do not. Achieving goals and being recognized for doing so is
intrinsically motivational. The satisfaction a personnel derived from
their work varies, some derive satisfaction from their environment, good
salary they receive other benefits and oversees training courses made
available to them by the management.
Those in banking sector derive their own satisfaction from the nature
of their job, car loan, rewards, interaction, training exercise and
other benefits they receive from the organization. Motivation has a lot
to do on workers emotion, when an individual is not motivated he cannot
put in his best. Motivation they say activates human energy. It is a
force which leads people to satisfy their important needs. All human
behaviour is directed towards a goal. Individual values and goals differ
from organizational goals and values. These values help personnel make
judgment and decisions on matters affecting them. Personnel in
organization have a number of responsibilities. They are responsible to
the organization for doing what they are paid to do which is hiring new
workers and administering basic resources like pay and benefits and also
responsible for meeting their own needs and protecting their own
According to Eli Ginzberg (1982) in his human Economy, workers want
to earn enough from their work to meet the needs of their families and
to enjoy a rising standard of living. Secondly, they want reasonable
assurance that if their performance is satisfactory they can look
forward to holding their jobs and to the special benefit which will
accrue to them by virtue of their long term with the organizations. They
want their job to provide the satisfaction that comes from the
meaningful activities of the management. Finally, workers expect that
those who supervise and direct them will not infringe on their rights as
human beings and as citizens.
Furthermore, Koontz et al (1982) define motivation in a general term
applying to the entire class of desired needs, wishes and similar force.
We can look at motivation as involving a chain reaction on wants or
goals sought which gives rise to tension, then causing action towards
achieving goals, and finally satisfying wants. We can easily note that
many physiological needs are stimulated by environmental factor. The
smell of food may make one hungry, a high thermometer reading may make
us suddenly feeling hot or the sight of a cold drink may cause an
overwhelming thirst, who for example, has not had certain physiological
needs accentuated by an attractive
Udoh E.U. (1999) says that management has a major influence on our
perception and needs. The promotion of a colleague may kindle one‟s
desire for a higher position. A challenging problem may want our desire
to accomplish something by solving it. Personnel manager like other
categories of workers every where are basically the same. They want more
money, training exercise, more motivation accordingly. Even in the
banking sector, benefits that management can use in motivating personnel
managers include, medical facilities, pension, gratuity plans, vacation
leave with pay, and sick benefit with pay, housing subsidy, and
transport allowance. If these are the needs and wants of personnel
managers everywhere in the banking sector, what type of benefit do
managers in the sector provide to satisfy the yearning of their
manpower. From the situation of things in the country, we can see that
these fringe benefits are being denied to personnel mangers in most
banks in Nigeria. We don‟t need anyone to convince us that productivity
of personnel managers in such banks is one of the lowest in the sector.
However, the basic focus of this study centers on the role of
management in motivating personnel managers in the banking sector. Also
the study has to look into things that makes recruiting officers in the
banking sector feel satisfied in their work as well as the things
management in the banking sector have to do to make sure that their
personnel derive satisfaction from their work to boost their
productivity, using First Bank, Plc, Okpara Avenue, Enugu State as a
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Motivation of personnel managers in every bank poses some serious
problems to both management and employees themselves and the two have
been on entangled midway but research and analysis of the motivation of
personnel appears to emphasize the importance of making job challenging
Employees attitude to work depends on the degree of motivation they
derive from the job. Satisfaction an individual derives from job varies
with age, sex, occupational level, social group and individual increase
in productivity depends on workers input and workers cannot put in much
when they are dissatisfied with their work.
In other words, the efforts of managers in motivating personnel
manager or human resource managers in most of the banking institutions
does not seem to yield expected result, but managers in these banks
often consider their immediate corporate financial position to the
detriment of effective motivation of the personnel workers and the role
played by personnels, forces managers always to take consolation on
aggregate return rather than individual rate of returns thereby, getting
the wrong evaluation and faulty picture of the impact of the role of
personnel managers in motivation. This degree of laxity and limitation
constitute the problem of this study which necessitates this research.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are:
- To determine how managers contributes to the motivation of personnel managers and their satisfaction in the banking sector.
- To determine the effectiveness of personnel workers in the banking sector
- To look into some motivation mix, that is, the set of controllable
variables that managers in the banks can use to influence their
personnel workers and recommend appropriate motivation mix that will
make the staff experience job satisfaction that will enhance performance
and quality of service rendered to customers.
- To determine the effectiveness and impact of motivation on employee‟s productivity in the bank.
1.4 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work will be relevant to the managers and
personnel managers of First Bank Nig. Plc. It will also be beneficial
to other public sector organization in Nigeria; it will also be of
importance to the government, potential and future researchers on the
issue of management‟s means to motivate personnel workers or related
studies on motivation.
This empirical study is also important to the researcher, since it is
a partial requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) in
industrial Relations and Personnel Management. It is hoped that the
result of this study would be used by all corporate financial and
recruiting organizations involved in banking and personnel services, by
way of providing the necessary information and machinery that will be
useful for appropriate decision making and recruitment process in the
area of study. It would also guide management of related organizations
on policy formulation and even on implementation processes.
This study will also identify how the academic environment would
stand to benefit in the direction of having a guide for research work,
lectures, seminars and even class work for the study. The professionals
would have enough ground for professional advice for client and other
related publics. Government will use the result of their study as
guiding information for policy formulation and other decisionmaking.
Finally, the general public and even the personnel managers would
benefit from this work by actually knowing what motivation as well as
the impact on performance is all about.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Are their any room for personnel management in your bank?
- Are workers in your bank motivated on their work?
- Does your bank management have concern on workers‟ job satisfaction?
- What are the things management use to motivate personnel managers in your bank?
- Are there problems arising in your bank concerning workers‟ motivation?
- Did you think that motivation have an impact on worker‟s productivity in your bank?
- Does the management respond to the workers problems positively?
- In what ways do you think that motivation packages for workers in your bank could be improved?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The researcher formulated the following hypothesis based on the
objectives and problem identified for the purpose of this research work,
stating them in both Null and Alternate forms.
- Ho: Motivation does not have significant impact on workers productivity
Hi: Motivation has significant impact on workers productivity
- Ho: Employee productivity does not depend on motivation
Hi: Employee productivity depends on motivation
- Ho: The role of management in motivating worker in the banking sector is not significant.
Hi: The role of management in motivating workers in the banking sector is significant.
- Ho: Provision for advancement would not improve workers productivity
Hi: Provision for advancement would improve workers productivity.
This research work focuses particularly on the role of management in
motivating workers in the banking sector. For this reason therefore, the
research has consulted with several views on the issues of motivation
and workers to include text books on management, Human Resource
Management; industrial relations, Newspaper, edits, journals banks etc.
The work could be voluminous if all the arguments of different authors
are presented, but they have been carefully selected so that only issues
particularly concentrating on management‟s motivation of workers in
banking sector are considered.
In the process of conducting this research work on the role of
management in motivating workers in the Banking sector, a lot of factors
militated against the study. First was the attitude of the respondents
to the researcher, some of the respondents took the researcher to be an
agent from external bodies and deliberately refused to answer the
questions. This is mostly the case with the senior staff/managers.
Closely associated with this problem is the fact that some of the
respondents did not return the questionnaire to the researcher. This is a
big limitation to this study since it further reduced the sample of
workers in the company used for the study.
Another problem that was encountered was due to shortage of time and
financial constraints. The research was faced with financial problem due
to transportation involved, printing questions, consulting newspapers
etc. also the scarcity of current materials or books imposed serious
limitations on the study.
The effect of the national strike which also affected the banks was
also a constraint. Finally, the problem of retrieving questionnaire from
respondents, some of whom did not care to complete the
questionnaire and so it became necessary to retrieve and redistribute them.
The research would have even cost more if it were to cover all
banking sector in the country, thus, the research areas is limited to
first Bank Nig. Plc, Okpara Avenue, Enugu State.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Motivation – It is a feeling of enthusiasm, interest or commitment that makes a worker wants to work and accomplish such work.
- Personnel manager – It is a person who administers nationwide merit system for federal employment, including
recruitment, examination and training programs.
- Management – A person or a body controlling and directing the
affairs of business, institution firms etc.
- Organization – A group of people brought together for the
purpose of achieving certain objectives while these members may change,
the role of the organization which is this basic unit is maintained.
- Work – This implies any kind of purposive activity whether paid or
unpaid, fulltime or part time, formal or informal. With reference to an
organization. It used to imply the operations involved in a particular
- Human resources – It is a field of business concerned with recruiting and managing employees or workers in any working sector.
- Productivity – It is referred to the measured relationship between
the quantity (and quality) of result produced and the quantity of
resources required for production. In essence, it is a measure of the
work efficiency of an individual, work unit, or entire organization.
- Promotion – It is advancement to a more senior job or a higher rank,
grade or position and also it could be a source of encouragement of the
growth or development of something.
- Job Satisfaction – It is when a worker carries out a work and
feels fulfilled that such work is carried out.
- Job Security – It is an area of safety in job that helps deals
with the protection of workers health and safety, through the control of
the work environment to reduce or eliminate hazard.
- Job Evaluation – It is the process of comparing, ranking and
appraising jobs by the use of specific qualitative or quantitative
factors, such as mental and physical skills, degrees of responsibility
and working condition.
- Fringe benefits – It is an alternative and offered by a firm to this
workers to make them feel satisfied with their jobs, such as pensions,
vacation and sick days, insurance, health, bonuses etc.
- Employee productivity – Is the amount of time an individual is
physically present at a job and also the degree to which he or she is
“mentally present” or efficiently functional while present at a job.
1.10 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
The theory of Abraham Maslow‟s (the hierarchy of needs) is used to
explain the relationship between management‟s motivation and personnel
manager. It is the most widely mentioned theories of motivation and that
best suit this research work. Maslow saw human needs from the lowest to
the highest needs ie in hierarchy and he concluded that when one set of
needs are satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator. Maslow
said; “If we are interested in what actually motivates us and not what
has or will, or might motivate us, then a satisfied need is not a
motivator”. According to Maslow, these needs are classified into five
and all of them go towards giving an individual (personnel manager)
motivation and job satisfaction. These needs are:
- Physiological need:
Undoubtedly, these basic needs are the most proponents of all needs.
What this means specifically is that, human beings who has not achieved
anything in life in an extreme fashion, it is most likely that the major
motivation would be the physiological needs rather than any other. A
person who is lacking food, safety and esteem would probably hunger for
food more strongly than anything else. At every stage in the
organization, management is to recognize that every kobo means much to
the employee. He would trade some comfort for money.
- Safety need:
Once the first need are largely satisfied, safety needs emerges. An
individual becomes concerned with the need for safety and security,
protection from physical harm, disaster, illness and security of income,
life style and loss of employment. An employee likes to know that his
employment is permanent. The loss of his job could induce him to seek
ways of satisfying his physiological needs. In other to motivate such
employee and encourage productivity, management would try as much as
possible to provide security for workers.
- Social need:
The need is often referred to as acceptance need. The individual has
satisfied his two basic needs and wants acceptance, to love and to be
loved. The value of friendship, affection and the sense of belonging are
much needed and are seldom satisfied by money. Management on their part
could motivate personnel manager by paying them adequate salary and
rewarding them for the services rendered.
- Esteem needs:
At this stage the individual has need for recognition,
accomplishment, and achievement for the need for self respect. He loves
to take responsibilities and prove himself. The esteem need is the ego
need. A personnel manager would feel motivated when management gives
room for his contribution to be recognized and appreciated. The feeling
of independence, professionalism and confidence is highest at this
stage. It is important for management to recognize.
- Self Actualization:
This need is often called fulfillment need. This is the need for an
employee to reach his highest potential at work place in conquering his
environment. A personnel manager is motivated by a desire to
selfactualize, to achieve whatever he defines as his maximum potential,
to do his work to the best of his ability. As he succinctly put it,
“what a man can be, he must be”.
Maslow believe that an average citizen satisfies perhaps 85% of his
physiological needs 70% of his esteem needs and 10% of his self
actualization needs. According to him, human motive at work are governed
by these needs and their satisfaction will lead to motivation and high
productivity. It must be recognized that there is a great deal of over
lap in the concept of hierarchy of needs and a great deal of
inter-dependence among the various levels there is no clear cut
distinction between one level and the other, when all the individual
needs tends to be partially satisfied, the safety need disappears as
social needs and esteem needs emerged, they only become less active.
Certainly, there is evidence that Maslow‟s theory is able to account
for findings on occupational level and motivation. Those in lower level
of occupation are likely to be motivated by lower order needs as pay and
security. Where as those in high levels of occupation that have those
basic needs fulfilled are more interested in fulfilling higher order
needs. Again this depends in the time and circumstances since a person
on esteem need can fall back to physiological needs during severe
Maslow did not infact intend that needs hierarchy should be directly
applied to job satisfaction but despite this lack of interest on his
part, a number of theorists like McGregor (1960) “The „X‟ and the „Y‟
Theory” has popularized Maslows theory in management literature. The
needs Hierarchy has a tremendous impact on the modern management and job
satisfaction studies by Beer (1960) and Clack (1960) seem to support
1.11 HISTORY OF THE AREA OF STUDY
First Bank was founded precisely in March 31st 1894. at inception,
the bank was incorporated as a limited liability company under the name
Bank of British West Africa (BBWA), with the head office originally in
First Bank of Nigeria Plc is the premier bank in West Africa and the
leading financial service provider in Nigeria. The Bank has involved
itself in national development especially its contribution to the
economic growth and development of Nigeria over the last 116 years and
has been driven by commitment to the provision of excellent banking
In response to a rapidly changing economic and business environment,
First Bank has at various times restructed her operations. This Bank had
in 1975 changed her name from Bank of British West Africa (BBWA) to
Bank of West Africa (BWA).