BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture in Nigeria has remained the largest sector contributing
nearly 39% to the gross domestic product for the past two decades and
employing nearly 60% of its workforce. Over 80% of the country’s
population in the rural areas is directly or indirectly dependent on
agriculture for its livelihood (NBC,2005). The Nigeria livestock
resources consist of 13,885,813 cattle; 34,453,724 Goat; 22,092, 602
sheep; 3,406,381 pigs; 104,247,960 poultry (Rim, 1992). From these
figures, poultry is about 58. 72% of the total livestock production
which indicates the place of poultry sub-sections in the livestock
Poultry plays an important economic, nutritional and socio-cultural
role in the livelihood or rural household in many developing countries
including Nigeria. Poultry are birds that include fowl, turkey, duck,
goose, ostrich guinea fowl, pigeon etc. which render not only economic
services but contribute significantly to human food as a primary
supplier of meat, egg, raw materials for industries (feathers, waste
products), source of income and employment to people compare to other
domestic animals (Avila 1985; Demehe, 2004).
Poultry meat and eggs play a very useful role in protein production
in Nigeria. They are palatable and generally acceptable. This
acceptability cuts across nearly all cultural region boundaries in
Nigeria. Poultry industry plays important role in the development of
Nigeria economy. Poultry production has become a full time job for many
Nigerians and significantly contribute to the Groose National Product
(GNP) (Umeh and Odo; 2002). Poultry products mainly meat and eggs
represent important food for improving the nutritional status
particularly of the most vulnerable populations-children and pregnant
women. Poultry production is an important part of farming in many parts
of the world. The major attracting factor in poultry production is
probably the tendency of providing a fairly rapid return on capital
The poultry industry in Nigeria has recorded considerable expansion
in recent time (FAO, 2000). For example, the creation of Akwa Ibom State
in 1987 and the increased activities of oil and gas companies in the
area with the resultant improvement in the demand for animal protein
especially in the form of poultry products. This has led to the
establishment of poultry farms which are located in Uyo agricultural
zone of the state. While overall national increase in poultry production
has probably triggered off vigorous research into alternative and
cheaper feed resources urgently needed to sustain such growth: there is
the need to continually focus attention on the health of the animals in
other to realize the full potential of the industry (Fasami; 1990).
Poultry diseases remain one of the major threats to boosting poultry
production in Nigeria (Halle et al., 1998; Laseinde, 2002). Poultry
diseases continue to play major central role in hampering its
development (FAO, 1998; Rushton et al, 1999) The impact of diseases on
animal agriculture is typically assessed in quantitative terms. In
poultry industry examples of these terms include lost revenues, costs of
vaccination/prevention, eradication, decontamination and restocking.
These have been referred to as a negative input (Unrusfield, 1995). In
Nigeria, diseases are among the major factors that hinder poultry
development (Alanargot, 1987; Alemu, 1995).
A lot of losses in poultry have been linked to diseases causing
agents such as viruses, bacteria and parasites. It has been estimated
that more than 750 million chicken, guinea fowls and duckling in Africa
die each year as a result of various infections (Sonaiya 1990). Although
somewhat in birds parasitic has been achieved by commercial production
system mostly due to improved housing hygiene and management practices,
the prevalence of infectious diseases is still very rampant (pandry et
at: 1992). Nigeria has a comparatively well developed poultry industry
for West African Nation.
Apantaku (2006) described this trend to the low level of poultry
production in comparison to the level of poultry technologies being
generated by Nigerian poultry researchers. The prevailing situation
became worsen in 2006 by the reported outbreak of highly pathogenic and
viral diseases like Avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious
bursal disease and coccidiosis. Obayelu (2007) reports that the diseases
outbreak led many poultry farmer into psychological breakdown due to
losses incurred and also affected animal protein intake of a large
sector of Nigeria population.
Major limitations confronting the industry are numerous. The problems
confronting the poultry industry in Nigeria include disease, low egg
production, poor chick quality, poor weight gain, lack of capital,
management problems etc (Van et al.; 1995; Apan taku et al; 1998; Ojo;
2003). Other problems include high cost of drugs and equipment such as
battery cases, high cost of feeding, increasing cost of medications,
marketing and lack of storage facilities as well as unfriendly
government policy and finance. Sources of economic losses in poultry
include lack of technical know-how, poor quality feed, poor housing,
mismanagement and of great significance, disease outbreak which had
received tremendous attention (Adekumisi et al; 1996; Torimiiro et. al.,
Despite the economic significance of the diseases to the commercial
and small scale poultry producers in the country, no substantial
research has been done to asses its economic losses. With the increasing
interest in poultry production evidenced by the proliferation in
poultry farms, it is pertinent to continually evaluate the prevalence
rate and management issues associated with common poultry disease such
as Avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The incidence of poultry diseases in Nigeria has led many poultry
farmers into psychological breakdown due to losses incurred. Poultry
diseases has a gross attack rate on commercial poultry production.
Culling birds in order to eradicate and control the spread of the
diseases has negatively affected the livelihoods of all classes of
poultry owners and producers. Such an impact is most serious on the
smaller family producer and commercial producer whom poultry production
is their sole of income generation. Effects of poultry diseases on the
economy. Where market is lost through the reduced rate to export,
restriction of movement of birds and the closing of some domestic
markets is especially the constraint which affect the income generating
ability of smaller producers in the zone (Mettzer et al., 1999). The non
consumption of poultry meat as well as its products has also affected
animal protein intake in the large sector of the population. The most
pronounced affect is the sharp decline in demand as people avoided
eating and demanding for poultry product out of fear of being infected
(WHO, 2004a). The survivability of poultry industry in Nigeria is very
low due to poor management techniques embarked upon by rural poultry
farmers, and outbreak of seasonally defendant diseases that can account
for high chick losses and mortality.
Purpose of the Study
The study is aimed at examining the prevalence rate of poultry
diseases and mortality of flock in the study area. Specifically the
study seeks the following objectives.
- To determine the prevalence rate of Avian influence and its mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area.
- To determine the prevalence rate of Newcastle Disease and it mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area.
- To determine the prevalence rate of infectious Bursal disease and its mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area.
- To determine the prevalence rate of coccidiosis and its mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area.
- What is the prevalence rate of Avian influenza and its mortality rate in poultry on Uyo Local Government Area?
- What is the prevalence rate of Newcastle diseases and its mortaility rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area.
- What is the prevalence rate of infectious Bursal disease and its mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area.
- What is the prevalence rate of coccidiocsis and its mortality rate on poultry in Uyo Local Government Area.
Significance of the Study
- The finding of this study will motivate the farmer to produce
quality and disease free products capable of meeting the nutritional
requirement of address the problems of malnutrition, food insecurity low
income and poverty as a whole.
- Nigerian policy makers and Animal Health Professionals will benefit
from the study as the studies will expose them to the cause of major
epidermis seen each year resulting in death of many birds, and this
knowledge will enable more precise disease control planning.
- To the scientist, it will provide valuable data for epidemiogical
studies both logically throughout Nigeria through collaboration. The
data will also assist them with a role informing animal health and
disease control policy.
- The study will be significant in the training of farmers on improve livestock breads for the gradual upgrading of local breeds.
- This study will help to increase productivity of poultry farms which
in turn will create job opportunity to the community and reduce the
cost of production. Also the more progressive or productive the poultry
farm is, the more produce will be supplied to the market for
- The study will help the community dwellers and those practicing
poultry on subsistence level in Uyo Local Government Area by teaching
them poultry management practices and approaches which can be used to
achieve improved performance in their business.
Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to prevalence of diseases on the mortality
rate of poultry in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State only
four infectious diseases of poultry are being surveyed in the study i.e
Avian influence, (AI), Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro), Newcastle
disease (ND) and coccidiosis (C).
This chapter review of literature consist of the following headings:
- Theoretical framework
- Conceptual framework
- Review of related empirical studies
- summary of review of literature
THEORY OF RISK MANAGEMENT
Risk is everywhere and is substantially an unavailable element in the
business of farming according to Ayinde et al (2008). Farming decisions
are generally made under the environment of risk and uncertainties.
Some of these risks are naturally the hazards such as floods, droughts,
fire outbreak, diseases and pest attack. In farming, yield, product
prices, input prices and quantities are usually not known with certainty
when investment decisions are being made. In many cases, farmers are
confronted with risk of pests and diseases which may cause product price
to decline, and these characteristics results in returns displaying
high variability, (Ajieh 2010). Olartinde et al. (2007) stressed that
there are four forms of farming risks which are natural, social,
economic and technical risks. Natural risk are natural occurrences such
as drought, flood, wind storm, diseases and pests and they have adverse
effect on output of agricultural production. Social risk referred to
actions of human beings on the farm such as theft of produce, bush fire,
invasion of farms while economic risks was identified as risk resulting
from input and output, price fluctuations which translate to low
income. Technical risks are seen as types that affect production process
which include insufficient and untimely supply of inputs, insufficient
credit and inadequate processing facilities. Adubi (2000) however
emphasized that small scale farmers are more exposed to risk than other
segments of the population because they exist at the margins of modern
Walker et al. (2011) identified risk management as finding the
preferred combination of activities with uncertain outcomes and varying
levels of expected returns. He further asserted that risk management
involves choosing among alternatives to reduce the effect of risks on a
farm and in so doing affect the farm’s welfare position.
Walker et al. (2001) identified risk management to include enterprise
diversification, insurance, production contracting, vertical
integration, marketing contracts, hedging in future, future option
contracts, maintaining financial reservoirs and leveraging liquidity,
leasing inputs and hiring custom work, off-farm employment and other
types of off-farm income. Managing risk in farming does not necessarily
involve avoiding risk, but instead involves finding the best available
combination of risk and return given a person’s capacity to withstand a
wide range of outcomes (Onyekole, 2000). Effective risk management
involves anticipating outcomes and planning a strategy in advance given
the livelihood and consequences of events not just reacting to those
effects after they occur.
Olarkinde et al. (2007) however identified four main aspect of risk
management to include identifying potentially risky element,
anticipating the livelihood of possible outcomes and their consequences,
taking actions to obtain a preferred combination of risk planning
strategies when distress conditions have passed. Kindre (2006) reported
that farmers can also manage their farming risks by either leasing
inputs including land or hiring workers during harvest or other peak