EFFECT OF PARITY ON LITTER SIZE AT BIRTH AND AT WEANING IN RABBITS

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EFFECT OF PARITY ON LITTER SIZE AT BIRTH AND AT WEANING IN RABBITS
ABSTRACT

Data on 100 litters from different parities were used to study the effect of parity on litter size at birth and at weaning in rabbits. The data were subjected to statistical analysis and the significant mean differences separated using student Newman Keul’s test. Traits considered were litter size at birth and at weaning. Results obtained showed that litter size at birth increased slightly from the 1st to the 2nd parity before declining with age. Litter size at birth in sixth parity was significantly different from those in other parities. Rabbit does with total number of litter size of five at birth had the highest percent occurrence of 24%. Also, rabbit does with total number of litter size of four at weaning had the highest percent distribution of 23% on the farm. The highest number of litter size at birth obtained was eight, the lowest was one and the average was approximately five. For litter size at weaning, the highest number obtained was seven, the lowest was one and the average was four. The predicted estimates showed that litter size at birth for the 1st and 2nd parities were generally slightly higher than for the 3rd to the sixth parity. This may suggest that 1st parity may be better in predicting doe performance than 3rd parity, although single records are not preferable in selection/culling policy. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS PAGE

Title Page………………………………………………………………………….ii

Abstract…………………………………………………………………….……..iii

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………….…….iv

Certification………………………………………………………………….…...v

Dedication………………………………………………………………………...vi

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………...........vii

List of Tables……………………………………………………………………ix

List of Figures……………………………………………………………………..x

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………...1

1.1 Objectives of the study……………………………………………………..2

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………....3

2.1 Origin…………………………………………………………………........3

2.2 Morphology and Ecology……………………………………………….....3

2.3 Reproduction…………………………………………………………...…..5

2.4.0 Breeding traits of Rabbits………………………………………………….6

2.4.1 Litter size at Birth……………………………………………………….....6

2.4.2 Litter size at Weaning…………………………………………………...…7

2.4.3 Doe Weight………………………………………………………………...8

2.4.4 Parity of Does……………………………………………………………...9

2.4.5 Kindling Interval………………………………………………………….11

2.4.6 Age at first Mating…………………………………………………..……12



CHAPT ER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS…………………………………………….....15

3.1 Location………………………………………………………………......15

3.2 Experimental Animals……………………………………………………15

3.3 management and Feeding of the Animals………………………………...15

3.4 Breeding…………..………………………………………………………16

3.5 Experimental diet and Feeding……………………………………….......17

3.6 Data collection and Analysis………………………………………..……19

3.7 Statistical Analysis…………………………………………………..……19

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS…………….………………………………………………………….20

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION…….……………………………………………………………...24

CHAPTER SIX

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION…………………..27

Summary……………………………………………………………........27

6.2 Conclusion………………………………………………………………..27

6.3 Recommendation………………………………………………………....28

REFERENCES………………………………………………………………….29

APPENDIX…..………………………………………………………………….34



LIST OF TABLES

TABLE TITLE PAGE

3.1 Estimated Composition of Experimental Diet……………………………18

4.1 Means of Parity effect on Litter size at birth and at Weaning…………....20

4.2 Predicted Estimate of Litter size of Rabbits at Birth in different Parities..21

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE TITLE PAGE

4.1 Percentage distribution of Litter size at birth…………………………..…22

4.2 Percentage distribution of Litter size weaning……………………………23



CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Owing to the increasing cost of animal protein sources in the developing Nations, leading to animal protein deficiency especially in Nigeria, it will be wise for farmers to embark on the production of livestock species which will give high protein turn over within a short period interval. Rabbit, a mini livestock fits into this description. All these benefits can be annexed with effective breeding programme such as selection of animals from reputable does and this should not be approached half hazardly. It should be done from litters in parities that have proven to perform outstandingly. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of parity on litter size at birth and weaning in order to identify parities with higher litters. Selection on litter size has had a lower than expected success as a consequence of its low heritability ( Baselga, 2004). A reduction in the environmental variance of litter size would increase the heritability and consequently its response to selection. Besides, homogeneity in litter size reduces cross-fostering, facilitating management with a consequent reduction of costs. Pre-weaning mortality is a major cause of wastage in rabbit production. Filiz et al. (2009) stated that birth weight variation within litters affects kits survival and weight gain. Parity and litter size are some of the factors affecting birth weight. Milligan et al. (2002) indicated that parity influences birth weight and generally, does in first parity kindled litters with lower birth weight than does in other parities. Litter size at birth increases as parity increases. Yamani et al. (1991) reported that effect of parity on litter size at birth did not show any consistent trend. Litter size at weaning increased as parity advanced up to the sixth one. The differences in this character due to parity were significant (P ≤ 0.01). Ouyed and Brun (2008) reported that rabbits from second parity were heavier at weaning (0.69 kg) and had the highest commercial carcass weight. This was in agreement with the result reported by Prayaga and Eady (2003). Litter size, parity and birth weight are some of the factors affecting survival rate. Higher litter size may cause elevation in mortality rate in first 10 days (Filiz et al., 2009). Recent studies have reported evidences for an additive genetic control of environmental variance on litter size (Sorensen and Waagepetersen, 2003) in pigs; (Gutiérrez et al., 2006) in mice and in uterine capacity; (Ibañez-Escriche et al., 2007) in rabbits, and in litter weight at birth (Garreau et al., 2004, in rabbits). According to Armero et al. (1995), litter size at birth and weaning have been the traits of choice to select specialized dam line. Parity have been reported to affect litter size which thus suggest that at some parities, litter size will be better than others.

1.1 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are therefore:

- To determine the body weight of rabbits from different parities

-To determine the relationship between litter size and parity.

EFFECT OF PARITY ON LITTER SIZE AT BIRTH AND AT WEANING IN RABBITS

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Data on 100 litters from different parities were used to study the effect of parity on litter size at birth and at weaning in rabbits. The data were subjected to statistical analysis and the significant mean differences separated using student Newman Keul’s test. Traits considered were litter size at birth and at weaning. Results obtained showed that litter size at birth increased slightly from the 1st to the 2nd parity before declining with age. Litter size at birth in sixth parity was significantly different from those in other parities. Rabbit does with total number of litter size of five at birth had the highest percent occurrence of 24%. Also, rabbit does with total number of litter size of four at weaning had the highest percent distribution of 23% on the farm... agricultural science project topics

EFFECT OF PARITY ON LITTER SIZE AT BIRTH AND AT WEANING IN RABBITS

Project Information

  • CATEGORY : AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE
  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
  • ATTRIBUTE : Documentation Only
  • PAGES : 65 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
  • PRICE : ₦ 3,000.00

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