ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION PRACTICES AMONG ARABLE CROP FARMERS IN EDO CENTRAL ZONE, EDO STATE,NIGERIA
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TABLE OF CONTENTTitles pages ----------iCertification -----------iiDedication ----------iiiAcknowledgement---------ivTables of contents----------viiList of tables ----------ixCHAPTER ONE1.0 Introduction--------11.1 Background of study-------11.2 Statement of problem---------31.3 Objectives of study--------51.4 Justification of study--------51.5 Statement of Hypothesis--------6CHAPTER TWO2.0 Literature review--------72.1 Socio-economic characteristics of farmers ----72.2 The Concept of climate change------82.3 History of Climate Change------92.4 Causes of Climate change-------102.4.1 Human Causes of climate change------112.4.2 Deforestation as a cause of climate change-----122.4.3 Burning of fossil fuel as a cause of climate change---122.4.4 Agricultural Activities as a cause of climate change----132.5 Effect of climate change on agriculture------142.5.1 Effect of enhanced carbon dioxide on crop growth----152.5.2 Effect of high temperature on agriculture-----162.5.3 Effect of available water on agriculture-----162.5.4 Effect of pest and diseases on agriculture----162.5.5 Impacts of sea level rise on agriculture----182.6 Emission trends and projections-------182.7 Awareness of climate change among farmers---192.8 Mitigation and Adaptation measures for climate change---232.9 Constraints to adaptive and mitigation measures----30CHAPTER THREE 3.0 Methodology-------333.1 Area of study--------333.2 Sampling technique and sample size-----343.3 Data collection procedure-------353.4 Measurement of variables-------353.5 Data Analysis--------37CHAPTER FOUR4.0 Result and Discussion--------384.1 Socio-Economic Characteristics Of Respondents----384.2 Awareness Of Climate Change -------454.3 Perceived Effect Of Climate Change On Arable Production---474.4 Extent Of Usage Of Climate Change Mitigating Measures---484.5 Perceived Effectiveness Of Climate Change Mitigating Measures --514.6 Constraints To Using Adaptive And Mitigating Measures. ---524.7 Hypothesis---------554.7.1 Relationship Between Respondents Socio-economic Characteristics andAwareness of Climate Change Issues -----554.7.2 Relationship between respondents socio economics characteristics andperceived effectiveness of climate change mitigation and adaptive practices-56 4.7.3 Relationship Between Respondents Socio-economic Characteristics andPerceived Effect of Climate Change on Arable Crop Production --584.7.4 Test of Difference between Male and Female Respondents with respect to Perceived Effect of Climate Change on Arable crop Production --63CHAPTER FIVE5.0 Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion----645.1 Summary----------645.2 Conclusion---------665.3 Recommendation--------66References -----------68LIST OF TABLESTable 2.1: Climate change adaptation and mitigation measures inagriculture ---------26Table 2.2: Adaptive measures actually used by farmers----28Table 4.1: Frequency distribution of socio-economic characteristics of respondents--------43Table 4.2: Awareness of climate change Issues-----46Table 4.3: Perceived effect of climate change on arable crop production--48Table 4.4: Extent of Usage of climate change mitigating measures---50Table 4.5: Perceived effectiveness of climate change mitigating and adaptive measures--------50Table 4.6: Constraints to using the adaptive and mitigating measures--54Table 4.7.1: Relationship between respondents’ socio-economic characteristics and awareness of climate change issues------56Table 4.7.2: Relationship between respondents’ socio-economic characteristics and perceived effect of climate change on arable crop production---58Table 4.7.3: Relationship between Respondents socio-economic characteristics and perceived effectiveness of climate change mitigation and adaptive practices------62Table 4.7.4: Test of difference between male and female respondents with respect to perceived effect of climate change on arable crop production--63ABSTRACTThis study assessed the climate change mitigating practices among arable crop farmers in Edo central zone of Edo state. One hundred arable crop farmers were selected through a multi-stage process using simple random sampling technique. Data collection was carried out with well structured questionnaire and was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Findings show that majority( 62.7%) of the respondents were males about 42% fell within the age bracket of 41-50 years of age, 84% were married, 62% had primary education and 41.3% had farm size of 2.1-4.0ha.The study also showed that majority of the farmers were aware of the causes and manifestations of climate change. All the respondents used manuring regularly as an adaptive measure while all of them perceived afforestation, manuring, timely harvesting and mixed cropping as most effective measures of adaptation. The result also showed that there was no significant relationship between respondents socio-economic characteristics and awareness of climate change. There was significant relationship between the respondents’ annual income (r=-0.194, P=0.017) and the perceived effect of climate change on arable crops. There was significant relationship between respondents’ farm size (r=-0.253, P=0.002) and annual income (r=-0.179, P=0.029) and the perceived effectiveness of climate change mitigation and adaptation measures . The major constraints to the use of adaptive measures were lack of finance, lack of access to improved crop varieties, inability to access available information, low level of technology and difficulty in getting accurate result. It was recommended that the state government should make funds through rural agricultural credit scheme to arable farmers in Edo central zone and ensure the funds are well disbursed to enhance their access to production inputs to mitigate climate change effects.CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYAgriculture is a major sector of the Nigerian economy, providing employment for about 70% of the population. The agricultural sector is the mainstay of the economy though her development funds at present derive more from Petroleum oil and Gas exploration (Ifeanyi-obi et al., 2012). It is the principal source of food and livelihood especially in rural areas.Agriculture in Nigeria as in most other developing countries is dominated by small scale farmers (Oladeebo, 2004). Small holder farmers constitute 80% of the farming population in the country (Awoke and Okorji, 2004). These farmers produce on subsistence level with the objectives of satisfying household food needs and little surplus for sale (Awoke et al., 2004).Although the agricultural sector is being transformed by commercialization at the small, medium and large scale enterprise levels, the country is still faced with a number of constraints. According to International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (2008), the constraints include poor agricultural pricing and low fertilizer use, low access to agricultural credit, land tenure insecurity and land degradation, poverty and gender issues, low and unstable investment in agricultural research as well as poor market access and marketing efficiency. In addition to these, climate and weather parameters have consistently been changing.Climate refers to the average or typical weather conditions observed over a long period of time (usually over 30 years) for a give area (Spencer, 2009). The classical period is 30 years as defined by the World Metrological Organization (WMO). Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric partial count and other metrological elemental measurement in a given region. On the other hand, climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over period ranging from decades to million of years (Wikipedia, 2010).Climate change and Agriculture are inter-related processes, both of which take place on a global scale. Global warming is projected to have significant impacts on conditions affecting Agriculture. These conditions include temperature, carbon dioxide, glacial run off, precipitation and their interactions are of significant importance. These changes in climate have had negative effects on agriculture over the years with arable crops not left out. Between 1996 and 2003, world grain production has stabilized over 1.8 billion tones. From 2000 to 2003, grain stocks have been dropping, resulting in a global grain harvest that was short of consumption by 93 million of tons in 2003 (Wikipedia, 2010). There has also been a reduction in harvest of these crops.In recent times, farmers have devised several methods and indigenous technologies to mitigate the effect of climate change. In south-western Nigeria, Research have shown various adaptive measures (Apata et al, 2009). The major adaptation technologies and innovators identified include irrigation (Fadama), Afforestation, use of drought tolerant crop varieties and organic practices in form of manuring, mulching and fallowing as well as planting- date adjustment and timely harvesting of crops. However, these measures are not free of constraint. The constraints observed included lack of finance, low level of awareness about climate change, low level of technology, high illiteracy level and difficulty in getting accurate result (Apata et al., 2009).1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMIt has been predicted that the resultant increase in temperature due to climate change will accelerate physiological development resulting in hastened maturation and reduced yield (FAO, 2005). It is also a well known fact that the occurrence of moisture stress resulting from drought, during flowing, pollination and grain filling is harmful to most arable crops. Growing seasons are expected to become shorter as temperature increases e.g rice yield starts decreasing at over 340c. It has also been noted that food production in Africa could half by 2020 (IPCC, 2007). Furthermore, extreme weather events (climate change) such as thunder storm, flood, heavy rainfall and heavy wind are detrimental to agricultural activities in crops, livestock and humans. These often lead to failure of crops and incidence of pests and diseases due to migration in response to climate change and variation. Nigeria is an Agrarian Economy with 75% small farmers accounting for the nation’s agricultural output (Bello, 2009). There are about 200,000 largely peasant farm families in Edo State who produce 80% of the crops consumed (www.edostate.gov.ng/commercialagriculture). Most of these farmers depend solely on the natural weather conditions for production and therefore need effective adaptive and mitigating measures to cope with these changes. The Edo state ADP and intervention programmes like National Fadama Development Project (NFDP), National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) and NGOs are in place to deliver extension services to farmers in all aspects of agriculture. However, it could not be categorically stated that they disseminate climate change adaptation and mitigation practices/information to farmers particularly on arable crops. Farmers have been using various measures over the years as coping strategies which are either indigenous or improved. It is in this light that the study investigated the climate change mitigation practices among arable crop farmers in Edo Central Zone, Edo state by answering the following questions:What are the socio-economic characteristics of arable crop farmers in the study area?Are the farmers aware of climate change issues?In what ways is arable crop production affected by climate change?What is the extent of usage and effectiveness of the mitigating and adaptive measures employed by the farmers?What are the challenges faced in using these measures?1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDYThe general objective of the study was to assess climate change mitigation practices among arable crop farmers in the study area. The specific objectives of the study were to:Examine the socio-economic characteristics of arable crop farmers in the study area; Assess farmers awareness of climate change issues;Examine the effect of climate change on arable crop production;Examine the adaptive and mitigating measures used by the farmers, how often they are used and how effective they are; Identify the constraints to the use of these measures1.4JUSTIFICATION OF STUDYThe importance of agricultural sector of any economy cannot be over-emphasized as food security is a major issue in developing the economy of any Nation. Food security helps to promote self-sufficiency, healthy and efficient labour force. Considering the large percentage of individuals involved in agriculture in the country, the effect of climate change on the sector which serves as a means of livelihood and source of foreign exchange, cannot be over looked. The effects of climate change requires efficient adaptive and mitigating measures. This study will shed light on climate change mitigating practices used by arable crop farmers in the study area. The study also aims at exposing the constraints to the use of these measures in the study area. Furthermore, it is hoped that the result of the study will help the Edo state Government to formulate policies that will help farmers with efficient adaptive measures and improve arable crop production in general. It is also expected that the result of the study will help the Federal Government formulate climate change policies for different agro-ecological zones of the country.1.5STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESESThere is no significant relationship between respondents socio-economic characteristics and awareness of climate change issuesThere is no significant relationship between respondent socio-economic characteristics and the perceived effect of climate changeThere is no significant difference between male and female respondents with respect to the perceived effect of climate change.There is no significant relationship between respondents socio-economic characteristics and the perceived effectiveness of climate change mitigation and adaptation practices.
ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION PRACTICES AMONG ARABLE CROP FARMERS IN EDO CENTRAL ZONE, EDO STATE,NIGERIA
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