APPLICATION OF GEOINFORMATICS TECHNIQUES IN CONTROLLING FLOODING IN VULNERABLE ROADS, BUILDINGS AND FARMLANDS IN HIS EAST LGA OF PLATEAU STATE


APPLICATION OF GEOINFORMATICS TECHNIQUES IN CONTROLLING FLOODING IN VULNERABLE ROADS, BUILDINGS AND FARMLANDS IN HIS EAST LGA OF PLATEAU STATE

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1.1 Background to the study

Floods are major disasters affecting many countries of the world annually especially in most flood plain areas. Floods do not only damage properties and endanger the lives of human and animals but also produce other secondary effects like outbreak of diseases such as cholera and malaria as well. Flooding is commonly caused by heavy downpours of rains on flat ground, reservoir failure, volcano, melting of snow and or glaciers e.t.c. Flood risk is not just based on history, but on a number of factors: rainfall, riverflow and tidal-surge data, topography, flood control measures, and changes due to construction of building and development on flood plain areas.

Flooding is caused by several factors and is invariably preceded by heavy rainfall. The other causes of flooding are moderate to severe winds over water, unusual hightides, tsunamis due to undersea earthquakes, breaks or failures of dams, levees, retention ponds or lakes, and other infrastructure that retains water. Flooding can be aggravated by impervious surfaces or by other natural and man-made hazards which destroy soil, vegetation that can absorb rainfall. Although flooding is a natural occurrence, man-made changes to the land can also be a factor. Development does not cause flooding but can make it worse. In cities and suburbs, pavement and rooftops prevent some rainfall from being absorbed by the soil. Thus can increase the amount of runoff flowing into low lying areas or storm drain system.

The significance of the year 2012 flood disaster in Nigeria lies in the fact that they were unprecedented in the past forty years. Most parts of the central states of Nigeria and other adjoining states along the river Niger and Benue are devastated by these floods causing huge destruction to the rural and urban infrastructures (farmlands/crops, roads, buildings, damages, bridges, power lines e.t.c ) and socioeconomic lives of the areas. Floods occur when the soil, stream channels and man-made reservoirs cannot absorb or contain all the water. A flood that occurs suddenly with little or no prior signs, is called a flash flood and is due to intense rainfall over a relatively small area, it us inevitable resulting from the natural rainfall runoff process. It is a natural phenomenon and its magnitude is periodic. The periodicity of flood implies that every year some area surrounding the river (on both sides) is flooded.

Flood disaster management like other disasters management can be grouped into phases; the preparedness phase where activities such as prediction and rusk zone identification or vulnerable mapping are taken up long before the event occurs, the prevention phase where activities such as forecasting early warning, monitoring and preparation of contingency plan are made before or during the event, and the response and mitigation phase where activities are undertaken after the disaster and these includes damage assessment and relief management (Van Western et al., 1993).

1.2 Problem Statement

Mitigation of flood disaster can be successful only when derailed knowledge is obtained on the expected frequency, character and magnitude of events in an area as well as the vulnerability of the people, buildings, I frastructures and economic activities in a potential dangerous area (Van Western and Hosftee, 1993). However, Ifatimehin er al., (2009); Ifatimwhin and Ufuah (2006) reported that this detailed knowledge is always lacking in most urban centers of the developing world especially Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The major objective of the study is the application of geoinformatics techniques in controlling flooding in Vulnerable Roads, Buildings and Farmlands in Jos East LGA of Plateau State.

1.4 Research questions

(1) what is flood?

(2) what are the effects of flood ?

(3) How can flooding be mitigated?

1.5 Significance of the study

This study gives a clear insight into the application of geoinformatics techniques in controlling flooding. It will also show how effective geoinformatics techniques application is in controlling flooding in vulnerable roads, buildi GS and Farmlands.

1.6 Scope

The research focus on the applications of geoinformatics techniques in controlling flooding in vulnerable roads, buildings and farmlands in His East LGA of plateau state.

References

Ifatimehim and Ufuah, M.E (2006). Analysis of Urban Expansion and Loss of Vegetation in Lokoja using GIS Techniques. Zaria Geographers, 17(1): 28-36.

Ifatimehin, O.O., Musa, S.D. and Adeyemi, J.O. (2009). An analysis of the changing land use and Its impact on the Environment, Anyingba Town, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 10(4): 357-364.

Van Western, C.J.I., Van Duren, H.M.G. Kruse and M.T.J. Terlien (1993). GIZZI: Training package for Geographic Information Systems in Slope Instability Zonation. International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Science (ITC), 15(1): 245 pp. Enschede, The Netherlands

APPLICATION OF GEOINFORMATICS TECHNIQUES IN CONTROLLING FLOODING IN VULNERABLE ROADS, BUILDINGS AND FARMLANDS IN HIS EAST LGA OF PLATEAU STATE

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Project Information

  • CATEGORY : URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING
  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
  • ATTRIBUTE : Documentation Only
  • PAGES : 65 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
  • PRICE : ₦ 3,000.00

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APPLICATION OF GEOINFORMATICS TECHNIQUES IN CONTROLLING FLOODING IN VULNERABLE ROADS, BUILDINGS AND FARMLANDS IN HIS EAST LGA OF PLATEAU STATE