of the Study
Benin City has one of the quality
transport services in Nigeria which is located at ring road (Bobizua park) and
third market (Osato park). Quality urban transport services in Benin City have
been provided by public and private transport companies (Kantorovich, 2012). This has no doubt improved the
socio-economic development of Benin City and Edo State large. This is evidence
that transportation plays key role in the development of urban and rural areas.
The role of transportation in economic development cannot be overemphasized.
Transportation is the engine block of any society and hence provides room for
effective socio-economic development and societal improvement (Ashenfelter and
Card, 2015). According to Aweto (2015), transportation plays key role in urban
development and nations building.
Research has shown that
transportation alone account for about 46% of the total physical distribution
cost for manufacturing companies and 28% for reseller companies. It is
important to note that much such success can be accomplish in manufacturing,
distribution of goods and services including the movement of people without
transportation (Adeniji, 2010). It is as a result of the great importance
attached to transportation that man has over the years developed various
transportation modes in other to facilitate the movement of people and
materials. The mode of transportation selected will greatly depend on price,
time, delivery, condition and destination, passenger’s patronage, and past
purchase satisfaction. This poor transportation management can therefore
jeopardize the source of procurement of materials; goods and services, movement
or people and even course increase in prices and loss of lives (Adefolalu, 2007).
to Kantorovich (2012) achieving quality urban
transport services is the key objective of every company, that is, if total
profit for a period is to be achieved. This cannot be achieved if the
management of the transport activities in an establishment is faced with some
problems such as; delay in delivery of goods, improper handling of materials
resulting in damage of goods, lack of qualified personnel, inadequate
transportation system in the organization, and improper maintenance of transporting
system causing breakdown leading to late delivery. For the fact that many
people invest in the transport industry, effective transportation management is
lacking in most transport companies (Adeniji, 2010).
Road Transportation is a necessary
end right from early history. The mobility of people and materials especially
in the present days become one of the greatest needs that have to be adequately
satisfied on our society and economy at large (Barke and Hare, 2014).
Transportation is referred to as the engine of the economy. This means that
without transportation management system, the entire economy will suffer
stagnation (Adefolalu, 2007). Transportation helps to bridge the gap between
producers, suppliers and industrial users as well as individual commuters.
Transport has been likened to the human blood circulatory system whose healthy
functioning is a necessary condition for the sustenance of human life (Adeniji,
2010). Transport systems provide a key to the understanding and operation of
many other systems at any different scales (Bearse, 2016). At one extreme,
inter-continental transport provides essential communication between the
advanced and developing worlds, while local transport to rural markets in many
parts of the third world is a vital component in changing dynamic
socio-economic structures (Barke and Hare, 2014).
The role of government in
providing quality urban transport services in Nigeria has not been encouraging
(Bearse, 2016). Government tends to neglect transportation sectors and focus on
other sectors of the economy without knowing that quality urban transport
services provided in any modern society could enhance effective delivery in
economic growth and societal development (Bearse, 2016). As further observed by
Bearse (2016), the provision of urban transport services in most Nigerian
cities has been seriously affected by lack of adequate fund have resulted to
poor road network, poor transportation facilities and lack of community and
Transportation helps to
bridge the gap between producers, suppliers and industrial users as well as
individual commuters. As noted by Ashenfelter and Card (2015), there is hardly
any human society or human settlement system that can function efficiently and
effectively without adequate, reliable, safe and affordable transport systems. They
added that the most fundamental reason for this being the catalytic effect of
transport development on socio-economic growth and development. They therefore
concluded that poor transport system of inadequate provision of quality urban
transport services often result to social, political, environmental and
According to Clarke (2016),
transportation is no doubt an
indispensible catalyst for activating and stimulating the tempo of economic,
social, political and strategic development in any society. Thus, effective and
efficient functioning of urban centres depends on the provision of basic
infrastructures one of the most important being transport.
Transport according to Hornby (2010)
is conveying, or being conveyed or a means of conveyance from one place to
another. It is the movement or displacement of persons, good and other movable
possessions in time and space for a particular purpose. In human societies,
this is not chaotically done because recognized paths marked out by individuals
or the societies are usually followed (Sube, 2012). This could be by water,
land or air. It is possible that since man from origin is a mobile being, the
word transport must have entered his vocabulary as early as when he developed
the act of speech (Richard and Ignatius, 2014).
In the same vein, Filani (2005)
rightly observes that the socio-economic development of any society depends to
a large extent on the nature and structure of the transportation networks of
the society since it provides the arteries through which the economic life
stream of society flows (the people, information, raw materials and finished
products) which help to build and maintain the society.
According to John, et al (2005), developing countries have
several factors in common that contribute to the severity of their transport
problems. Overall population growth and increasing urbanization have led,
especially to the rapid growth of large cities, which have been overwhelmed by
the sudden jump in travel demand. The supply of transport infrastructure lagged
far behind. Public sector finances in general are so limited that funding for
transport improvement is woefully inadequate. Commenting on urban transport
problems in Lagos state, Nigeria, Atubi (2007a) opines that some of the most
serious problem facing development planner and of the most makers in the
country reside in the transport sector.
Transportation is inherently central
to development of nations. It is not only a necessity to life but also have a
resultant of nations. It is not only a necessity to life but also have a
resultant effect on all aspect of human existence (Oyesiku, 2002). It provides
access to goods, services and social activities to maintain a good quality
life. It is fundamental in breaking isolation and thus strengthening individual
capital base (World Bank Report, 2002; Odufuwa, 2006).
Okpala (2011) noted that transportation
has been a major contributor to the economy competitive force in business. It
is activity that physical connects the business to its supply chain partners,
such as suppliers and passengers, and it is a major influence on the passenger’s
satisfactions with the country. Transportation is required in the whole
production procedures, from manufacturing to delivery to the final consumers
and returns. Only a good co-ordination between each component would bring the
benefits to a maximum.
In many Nigerian cities today,
transportation situation has reached a crisis point. This is the consequence of
several years of neglect by succeeding administrations. Therefore, it is not
out of place to state transportation in Nigeria is grossly inadequate
(Filani, 2002; Oyesiku, 2002; Odufuwa,
2003 and Atubi, 2009). The impact of this distressed sector on the economy or
the ensuring crisis is severe, with the urban poor suffering more than any
other group. The growing transport paucity has had a debilitating effect on the
lives of the people and it has continued to trap and push its catchment towards
poorer livelihoods (Atubi, 2012). The most devastating problem has been the
lack of sustainable mobility and frequent deviant driving behaviours as an
escape measure (Odufuwa, et al.,
From all indications there is high
level of poverty among urban households in the country. The transport
infrastructure and services generally requires a complete overhauling or repair
in other to make them physically sound. Also worth mentioning, are the land use
mix factors that the intra-urban travel. The land use mix factor affects the
intra-urban travel behavior and it has a profound influence on urban transport
planning and management in general (Oyesiku, 2002). It is against this background that this study
is conducted to carry-out an assessment of the quality of urban transport
services in Benin City, Edo State.
of the Problem
Poor road transportation management
is one major problem that is affecting the growth of the economy. Kootz and
Donnel (2016) posit that poor road transportation management has led to the
ineffectiveness and collapse of the Nigerian road system that supposes to carry
bulky goods from one city to another and has made inflation to be high. This is
in turn has bounced as the road transportation system characterized by heavy
duty lorries overworking the road system and the resultant effect is damages of
roads causing accidents and loss of lives and property. Poor management of road
transportation systems has cost the nation a damaged image, loss of huge amount
of money, loss of lives and properties and most road users are greatly
dissatisfied with condition of road transportation in Nigeria (Kootz and
Road transport is the
principal mode of transportation in Nigeria accounting for the vast majority of
freight and passenger travel. Over the
years the road system has been subjected to heavy freight which was beyond the
carrying capacity of the roads. This made the condition of the roads
deteriorate and the result is that much of the road system is barely usable
(Nwakamma, 2006). Hence roads were built to carry freight that could
conveniently be carried by railways.
Lack of poor technological
development to monitor or regulate the speed of vehicles, lack of clean
vehicles, high overloading of men and goods are great problems to road
transportation (Koontz, 2009). In addition, the poor attitude of drivers
towards their passengers is nothing to write home about. Today, road
transportation accounts for over 95% of passengers and freight transport
Ashenfelter and Card (2015)
emphasized that traffic congestion in Nigeria has turned mobility by road to a
nightmare. Today a lot of damage have been caused by this unhealthy phenomenon Ehrlich
(2017). There is a marked increase in lateness to work, school and business.
There are also cases of lowered productivity, chronic fatigue and bad stress.
The cumulative effect is a crashing down of the country’s Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) (Loy, 2004). Atubi and Onokala (2005a), have asserted that, for
any meaningful division of labour and specialization in production process to
take place in any society, there must be an efficient and effective transport
In Nigeria the need for an effective
transport system becomes more obvious if taken into consideration the large
size of the country and the need to disperse development move (Ehrlich, 2017).
The inability of Nigerians to device a better transportation system has been a
detraction of the growth of the economic social and political life of the
economy. Prominent among the problem, includes traveling difficulty lateness to
work, movement of agricultural product, goods and services from area of production
to area of utilization (Rachev, et al,
Public participation in transport
delivery can be said to be profitable, otherwise none of them would continue to
provide these services. On the other hand, it has not been so with government
participation (Ehrlich, 2017). Evidences available from empirical studies
carried out (Odeleye, 2004; Onakomaiya, 2002) showed that state urban transport
services provided through the mass transit was run at a loss. The reasons
include nonchalant attitude to government work by the employees, embezzlement
on the part of drivers and conductors, and inadequate response to taking
immediate actions on repairs and services of vehicles by government parastatals
established for such purposes (Clarke, 2016). The attitude of some professional
drivers also scares private investment in the areas of transport service
delivery. Majority of the transport
companies composed by small sized vehicles owned and operated are low-skilled
young men who migrated to cites from the countryside (Dimitrious, 2016). Over
abundances of idle labour makes road transport an attractive employment
opportunity. This condition leads to ignorance of passengers’ safety and
discipline in using road (Angenent, et al, 2013).
Most transport companies in Nigeria
are delivery poor service quality, poor maintenance of fleet and unsafe
service. Big share of the vehicle fleet consists of second hand vehicles
purchased from industrialized countries, ages of the vehicles are quite old and
there is a low maintenance budget (Dimitrious, 2016). Reliability, convenience
and travel time are considered to have a great impact of passenger satisfaction
in relation with the type of the trip, but most transport companies do not take
it seriously. This research seeks to identify the problem and find out possible
measures and solution to the problems.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The main overall objective
of this research is to carry-out an assessment of the quality of urban
transport services in Benin City, Edo State. However, the specific objectives
1. Identify the impact of urban
road transport management on the economy of Benin City, Edo State.
2. Identify the problem of road
transportation management in Benin City, Edo State.
3. assess the quality of urban
transport service provided by transport companies in Benin City, Edo State
4. explore the operation of urban
road transport management in Benin City, Edo State.
5. Make useful recommendation
to road transportation management in Benin City, Edo State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered in due
1. Does urban road transport
management have significant impact on the economy of Benin City, Edo State?
2. Do transport companies have
adequate modern technology and infrastructure to the satisfaction of
passengers, and road users?
3. What is the quality of urban
transport service provided by transport companies in Benin, Edo State?
Does urban road transport management play an important role
in the movement of goods and services?
5. What do you think are the
possible solution to the problems associated with urban transport system?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
There is no significant difference
in the quality
of urban transport service provided by public and private transport companies
in Benin City, Edo State.
Road transportation does not play significant
role in the movement of goods and services.
Road transportation management has no significant impact on the
economy of Benin City, Edo State.
Public/private transport companies do not have adequate
modern technology and infrastructure to the satisfaction of road users and
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work has
academic significance due to its relevance in the field of educational
institution most specifically undergraduates in transportation, marketing and
geography and regional planning which is among the educational unit that trains
future managers, administrators and planners. Etc. its findings and suggestion(s)
are likely to generate academic debate on the matter and interest among
The study could also help
the ministry of transport to better understand the current situation in road
transportation management. And accordingly makes changes to address the factors
that consequently help to formulate policies aimed at solving the problems of
road transportation management on road users and commuters. The study will be
of great importance to private and public organization such as transport
companies and individuals concerned with the business of transportation; it
will serve as a guide on the area of implementing quality assessment of urban
transport services, staff training on urban transport system, to address the
obstacles hindering effect on road users and passengers.
Lastly, students and researchers
would want to benefit from this study. Also, the study is to immense benefit in
the area of recommendation that would help in improving the general performance
of the company in question.
1.7 STUDY AREA
study area (Benin City) is located in the Niger Delta Region of the South-South
Geo-political zone of Nigeria (Obi, 1994).
1.7.1 Location and Size
Benin City is the administrative
headquarters of Edo State. It lies on latitude 060 02’ and 060
161 North and longitude 050 051 and 050
451 East, the city is about 117. 4km2 inland from the mouth
of Benin River which flow into Gulf of Benin (Obi, 1994).
It is a flat city at an altitude of
about 80m above sea level, on the Benin River; it comprises three Local
Government Area (L.G.As), Egor, Ikpoba-Okha and Oredo (Brinkhoff, 2010). The
centre of Benin is located on a depression which could be rightly described as
a basin or a low lying peninsular and this is also surrounded by undulating
hills (Brinkhoff, 2010). Benin City is a nodal town which occupies an area of
about 68 square kilometer (26.3 square mile) (Brinkhoff, 2010).