1.1 Background of the Study
A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard
strategies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of
parenting is more essential than the quantity spent with the child. For
instance a parent can spend the entire afternoon with his or her child
but the parent may be engaging in a different activity and not
demonstrating interest towards the child. Parenting styles are the
representation of how parents respond to the demand of their children.
Parenting practices are specific behaviours, while parenting styles
represent broader patterns of parenting practices. There are many
different theories and opinions on the best ways to rear children, as
well as differing levels of time and effort that parents are willing to
invest. Children go through different stages in life; therefore parents
create their own parenting styles from a combination of factors that
evolve overtime as children begin to develop their own personalities.
In sociology and psychology, self-esteem reflects a person’s overall
subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth. It is a
judgment of oneself as well as an attitude toward the self. Self-esteem
encompasses beliefs for example, “I am competent”, “I am worthy” and
emotions such as triumph, despair, pride and shame.
Smith and Mackie (2007) defined it by saying the self concept; it is
what we think about the self; self-esteem, is the positive or negative
of the self, as in how we feel about it” self-esteem is attractive as a
social psychological construct because researchers have conceptualized
it as an influential prediction of certain outcomes, such as academic
achievement, happiness, satisfaction in marriage and relationship, and
Within Western Cultures, self-esteem consistently has been
demonstrated to be directly related with parenting styles characterized
by low levels of acceptance and high levels of over protection (i.e.
affectionless control). Although in traditional collectivist cultures
there may be a preference for this parenting style, within a strong
collectivist framework. It is not thought to have a negative impact on
Self-esteem, defined as the extent to which an individual believes
himself or herself to be capable, significant, successful and worthy
(Coopersmith, 1981), consistently has been found to relate with
psychological states and behaviours (Cramer, 1989; Dishivn, Patterson
& Reid, 1988; Workman & Beer, 1989). The importance of
self-esteem as a global indictor of psychological health has encouraged
research into the influence of variables such as parenting on
As noted by the Basic Behavioural Science Task Force of the National
Advisory Mental Health Council (1996), the parent-child relationship
represents the earliest and most enduring social relationship of the
human life span. Accordingly, the quality of the parent-child
relationship has been argued to have a significant impact on the
competence, resilience and well-being of all individuals. (Basic
Behavioural Science Task Force of the National Advisory Mental Health
Council, 1996). Two fundamental aspects of parenting have been
identified as important for children’s adjustment or maladjustment. The
first of these has been identified as warmth, nurturance and acceptance
or responsibility. This dimension has been shown to be bipolar. It has
defined by parental affection, empathy and closeness on one pole and
coldness, indifference and neglect on the other (Baumrind, 1968;
Coopersmith, 1967). The second dimension has been defined by the amount
and control, structure and involvement that caregivers display toward
their children. This dimension has been differentiated in terms of
effective, emphatic and developmentally appropriate management versus
manipulative or punitivecare giving (Maccoby& Martin, 1983).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It has been discovered overtime that self-esteem has been
consistently related with parenting styles characterized by relatively
low levels of acceptance. This study will investigate the various known
parenting styles and how it affects children and adolescents both
positively and negatively.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The following are the purposes of this study;
- To identify various parenting styles adopted in Ugbowo Community.
- To investigate how these parenting styles affected self-esteem.
- The study will also find out how parenting styles and self-esteem influences.
- To find out the awareness of Ugbowo Community on parenting style.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the level of awareness of Ugbowo Community on parenting style?
- What is the various adopted parenting style?
- Does parenting style affect self-esteem?
- Does parenting style affect academic performance?
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research is limited to the influence of parenting style on
self-esteem amongst adolescents in Ugbowo Community, Egor Local
Government Area of Edo State. It has a population of 38, 462 people.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The following are the importance of this study;
- It will help to examine the relationship between parenting style and self-esteem in the development of the family and community.
- The study will also highlight how adolescent cope with mechanism of adjustment and modification.
- The study also helps us to know the role of
psychologists/sociologist in the development of a child/adolescent and
the family as a whole.
- The study will add to existing knowledge as the subject matter.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The following were constraints encountered with regards to the study:
- Getting materials from the internet and other sources proved difficult.
- Unwillingness on the part of respondents to provide necessary information.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
- i. Influence:The
power to affect, control or manipulate something or someone; the
ability to change the development of fluctuating things such as conduct,
thoughts or decisions.
- ii. Parenting: Is
the process of promoting and support the physical, emotional, social,
financial and intellectual development of a child from infancy to
adulthood. Parenting refers to the aspects of raising a child aside from
the biological relationship.
- iii. Style: A manner of doing things, especially in a fashionable one.
- iv. Self-Esteem: Is
defined as the extent to which an individual believes himself or
herself to be capable, significant, successful and worthy (Coopersmith,
- v. Psychology:Is
defined as the study of the human mind. It could also be the mental,
emotional and behavioural characteristics pertaining to a specified
person, group or activity.
- vi. Social: It refers to a characteristic of living organism as applied to populations of humans and other animals.
- vii. Attitude: In
psychology, an attitude is an expression of favour or disfavour toward a
person, place, thing or event (the attitude object). An attitude is an
evaluation of an attitude object, ranging from extremely negative to
- viii. Beliefs: Is the mental acceptance of a claim as truth regardless of supporting or contrary empirical evidence.