1.1 HISTORICAL BACK GROUND
are chemicals when the chemical are put into the body, they stop the
growth of kinds of germs. They help the body to fight diseases. More
than 3,000 years ago ancient people stumbled over the discovery that
some moulds could be used as a cure. The egyptians, the chinese, and
indians of central American would use mold to treat rashes and infected
would. At that time they didn’t understand either diseases or treatment.
As time went on, people began to gain some insight of disease. In the
1860 Louis Pasteur Shaw that many disease were caused it bacteria. Later
he discovered that we may be able to fight germ and other microbes. It
was two German doctors, who were first to make an effective medication
form microbes. Kudo if and Emmerich and Oscar has conducted their
experiment in the 1890. They proved that germ that would for another.
All the men did was to take the germ from infected bandages and grow
then in a test tube. They would then isolate a particular germ that
caused green in factions in open would. This germs was bacteria called
Bacillus pyoicyaneus. They put then into another test tube containing
other type of bacteria, it was then it happened that the bacillus
pyocyaneus wiped out the other disease germ. The germs that was killed
were those that caused cholera, typhoid, diphtheria and anthrau. From
this the two men created a medication that they called pyoanase, it was
the first antibiotics used in hospitals.
In 1928 Alexander Fleming, a
Scottish scientist, discovered penicillin, the first antibiotics. He
was keeping in a petn dish when a speck of mold fell in, it cause the
mold to grow on the nutrient agar used to feed the bacteria.
Surpassingly, it stopped the growth of the bacteria. Fleming through the
mold called penicillin notatum produced a substance that killed the
bacteria and so called it penicillin. However, he was not able to
entrant it from broth in which he grew the mold.
In 1945, Waksman
used the word antibiotics for the first time and proposed that it can be
defined as a chemical substance of microbial origin that possesses
antibiotic powers. He discovered a drug called streptomycin. It
onginated frommicrobes found in soil and was a cure for many intestinal
diseases. Now antibiotics like penicillin and streptomycin was
discovered. Each was effective against certain disease, but scientist
wanted more. Doctors however, anted broad spectrum drug. That is a
single antibiotics that could cure many disease
The search proved
successful one laboratory discovered Aureonycin, which is a drug that
does the job of penicillin and streptomycin. Another laboratory
In 1949, yet another laboratory came with
one of the effective antibiotics ever found, terranycin. This drug could
be used against many bacteria disease (Katzung, 1994).
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
1. To identify causative organism that are delectious to mans health.
2. To determine the potency of the different antibiotics.
3. To know the type of organism sensitive to the different antibiotics.
H0- Streptomycin is more effective
H1 – Streptonyin is not effective
H2 - Chloramphenicol is not effective
H3- Chloramphenicol is not effective
H4- Gentamicin is more effective
H5 –Gentanicin is not effective
H6 – Comparing the strength of the three antibiotics.
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Due to the problem
encountered in Enugu Urban (obiagu), most people abuse antibiotics owing
to the general belief that antibiotics can be used in the treatment of
all kinds of diseases. This can result to drug resist. Accumulation of
these drugs can lead to internal denage. Hence this study which compares
the antimicrobial strength of three antibiotics.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
This work will be limited to
the maximum inhibitory concentration and know the organism sensitive to
the different antibiotics under certain temperature.
1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Limited time in making research for the project work.
2) Inharailability of equipment and reagents in the course of carrying out the work.