This work is aimed at determining the
incidence of bacterial injections such as Salmonella and Escherichia
coli which cause health hazards to the
poultry in their feeds. Sample
feed were obtained from commercial mash operation/ pellet mill operation at New
heaven and top feed at Ogbete main market Enugu. The samples were screened for total aerobic
bacteria count, total coliform count and the characterization of the bacteria
isolates carried out while indole test and citrate test were used to confirm
the presence of Escherichia coli. The confirmation of salmonella isolates on
Mac conkey agar was also done.
1.1 Statement of problem
1.2 Aims and objectives of the study
1.3 Limitation of study
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Nutritional value
2.2 Economic importance
2.3 Disease cause by microorganisms
2.4 Livestock (poultry) feeds manufacturer
2.5 Nutrient /feed requirements
2.6 Nutritive values of eggs
2.7 Standard of feed quality
of poultry feeds & march ingredients
control of feeds CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and method
3.1 Sample collection
3.1.1 Microbiological analysis
3.2 Characterization of bacateria
3.2.1 Gram’s staining reaction
3.2.2 Indole test
red (Mr.) voges proskaver (vp) test
test CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Total aerobic bacterial count
4.2 Coliform bacterial count
4.3 Characterization of coliform isolates
of salmonella isolates CHAPTER FIVE
for bacteriological culture
LIST OF TABLES
I: Total aerobic bacterial counts 55
ii: Coliform bacterial counts 56
iii Biochemical characteristics of
(Escherichia coli) 57
iv: Biochemical characteristics of
I: chemical composition of the
constituents of the raw materials used 23
II: Flow chart of poultry feed 24
III: Energy, protein and Amino acid
of chicken 27
iv: March Ingredient 36
The term poultry used in agriculture
generally refers to all domesticated birds kepts for egg or meat
production. These includes chickens
(domestic fowls), Grallus domestics, turkeys,
ducks and geese. This project will deal
largely with the chicken which are the most common domestic fowl. The species of poultry are aptable or can
survive in different environments therefore, they are widely distributed in the
world, with great increase in population, the demand for goods especially
protein food become acute. To meet the
demand for animal protein and its development, rapid multiplying ones becomes
very necessary. Poultry has so many
advantages over other domesticated animal whose production is very much
hindered by lack of money, high temperature, disease and lack of good at
certain periods of the year.
diseases of poultry is like the disease of other animals may be caused by: a.
pathogenic organisms like bacteria and viruses, protozoa, worms and some
members of arthropods
deficiency, (c) From wound or cannibalism
The following diseases are usually associated with
the fowls locally
The incidence of salmonella and Escherida coli
simply means the extent to which the enteric organisms (Escherichia coli) that
are part of the normal flora and incidentally causes disease and pathogenic
organism (salmonella) affect the poultry feeds.
Hill, D.H; and Davis, O.s; (1962).
Shoening et al 1942). Defined diseases as any abnormal condition of the
tissue of the body, the cells that make up the various tissue have specific
functions to perform. Pekzar et al (1977) defined Salmonell is as a disease of
the chick fowl and swim bird cause by some species or Salnaonells.
Anon (1963) described pullorum disease as an actute infection disease of body chicks
caused by salnonella pullorum. Infection is the entering of the disease produces organisms into the animal.
Livestock (Poultry )gets infected when
pathogenic organisms passes to the
susceptible animal through the through
the following avenues. Esmat.omar 1977.
and contaminated water feed or water containing droppings or waste products of
diseased animal will help spread the organisms to fresh hosts. The feeding troughs and watering vessels aso
spread the diseases if not seperated.
Dropping or excretes: These material are the gateway
out for some stages of oarganisms to go out of the host and get to fresh animal
contact – some disease spread by contact.
Their agents may be external parasites or air borne in which case
nearness to the superior’s birds increase the changes of getting the organisms
or event the disease pathogenic organism from getting into the body of poultry,
attention should be payed to those factors that influence their infections and
spread. First and foremost, they should
have disease resisting stock, provide good shelter, clean range, proper feeding and practise separating the unhealthy
ones from the healthy poultry, quarantining new stock. In case of poultry, the brooder house should
be 30m to 48m from old birds. Such that they gets good feed and sunlight. They should act be allowed to get in contact
with their droppings or excretes since their dropping carry the pathogenic
organisms. Sanitation is very important
in poultry management by cleaning of water cans and feed troughs and finally
disinfecting the stock to help reduce organic matter.
This study has been justified by the need and
safety of consuming children (white meat) which has low cholesterol but rich in
protein than beef which has high cholesterol.
Also human beings and the world at large, benefit from our poultry farms
where we have the layers (Egg producing Chiks) and the broilers (Heavy chicks)
poultry (chicken) are rich in protein and amino acid needed for growth. Livestock feeds are formulated to a ratio for
different species and classes of poultry.
These are also feed additive, which may be added to the feed to prevent
disease or make animals utilize feed better.
Some ingredient concentrate is added to nourish the feed.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE
highlight the varius importance of the livestock (poultry) t human and our
To determine the incidence of bacteria
infection such as balmonella
and Escherichia coli which cause health hazard to
the poultry (Chiken).
To isolate and deduce effect of salmonella
specie and Escherichia coli
livestock (poultry) and their feeds.
To advice poultry farmers on how to
preserve and handle their farms
feeds from infections diseases to the birds.
This research work will be limited to the
available materials for carrying out experimental work and also due to cost of
transportation. This work will be limited to Enugu metropolis.
10:- Salmonella and Escherichia coli are the major causes of bacteira infection
found in livestock (poultry) feeds.
II: - salmonella only is the infection that effects the livestock (poultry)
II0:- Escherichia coli only is the bacteria infection that effects the livestock
STATEMNET OF PROBLEM
poultry feeds are infected during procession by
handling, mixing of ingredient and exposing the raw materials and furnished
products to the atmospheric micro organism.
(birds) are being infected through the consumption of the contaminated feeds
and unpurified water
when the healthy and unhealthy birds are fed together from the some feeding
trough and water vessels, eventually the pathogenic and the enteric organisms
from infested ones may widely spread
and Escherichia coli as the bacterial organisms effects the essential
requirement of the body such as water, carbohydrate, fats, vitamin, minerals
and protein thereby reducing the content of the nutrient needed for the food to
the palatable and easily digestible
(humans) get infected by the in take of uncooked and half done chicken