Oil is extracted from locally purchased African Star apple using
Sochlet extractor. Knowledge and information regarding the elemental
composition of the fruits are very essential both to the human
nutritionist and the horticulturist since minerals play vital roles in
the life of both the human being and plants.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
1.2 Aims and Objectives
1.3 Statement of Problem
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Limitation of Study
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Land Use
2.3 Propagation Techniques/Planting
2.4 Storage Techniques
2.5 Method of Extraction of Oil
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum
Africanum), locally called “Udala” by the Ibos and “Agbalumo” by the
Yorubas is found mostly in African Countries. Its distribution extend
from Sierra Leone to the Congo region and Angola, found in rain forest
and transitional formations, often planted for its edible fruits. Its
distribution also extends to Sierra Leone to Spain, Guinea, extending to
Sudan, Uganda, Kenya and Nyasaiano. It is also found in countries like
Southern Nigeria, Cameroons, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Sierra Leone.
Chrysophyllum Africanum is of the family “Sapotacea”. Its habitat is
usually on riverside in closed forest, and often planted in
villages. Chrysophyllum Africanum has different species,
but Chrysophyllum Africamum and Chrysophyllum Albidum bear the same
common name in Nigeria “UDALA”. (Okafor 1981).
A medium sized, evergreen three usually 70ft to 100ft high; bole
straight, flitted, bark gray and riddget, slash thin, cale brown,
darkening to orange, Heartwood whitish when first felled, turning a pink
buff to an olive yellow and finally a yellowish brown, not demarcated
from the sapwood.
Texture fine to medium, grain straight to
occasionally interlocked, luster rather low; wood contains a pale brown
gum. Chrysophyllum africanum bears edible fruits with large berries
containing five large flattened seeds. It is greenish in colour when
unripe and pale orange when ripe. It is pointed at both ends. The
fruits are large and more than 4cm wide, shaped like orange or apple, it
is often cultivated for its edible fruits and the pulp having a
pleasant acid taste (Nwadinigwe, 1982).
Chrysophyllum africanum (African
Star apple propagation is by seed either by encouraging natural
regeneration or plantation traditionally. The sapwood is pale yellow
and takes a good polish. It is fine grained, hard and tough polishes
It is used in carving and tourney. The seeds yield edible oil,
which is sometimes used in Ashanti for making soap. The latex is used
as birdlime, the back is also used medically, often sold in the market
and the tree is usually grown for this purpose.
In parts of Anambra
and Imo States, this tree (African Star Apple) forms the focal point or
venue for a fertility rite, in which young girls, childless wives
celebrates a festivity – eating, singing and dancing for the sole
purpose of praying to the gods of birth, this is a gesture of charity,
since children are freely entertained without discrimination or
distinction. The African Star Apples are valuable sources of minerals
such as protein, fats and oil, carbohydrates etc. (Okigbo, 1989).
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective and aim of
this Project is to extract the oil of African Star Apply
(Chrysophyllumafricanum) seed using sochlet extraction and to evaluate
its potential as a raw material in cosmetic and paint industry.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The demand for vegetable oil both
for consumption and industrial application is vast, and common sources
like palm oil and palm kernel oil are far stretched that the need for
alternative sources is invariable. This has prompted us to ascertain
the quantity, quality and the utilizability of the oil
of Chrysophyllum africanum in industrial and domestic processes.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The justification of this
research study is to ensure that the oil extracted from African Star
Apple is circulated or sold. It is also carried out on the basic of
making soap, paint, cosmetics, it is also used in curing jaundice to
avoid any sort of suffering from Jaundice.
1.5 LIMITATION OF STUDY
In a research project like this, it
is always difficult to complete the work without going through a number
of challenges, which constitute impediments. The time to get
information from the library, and time for the purchasing of raw
materials, industrial machines etc. finance is another constraint a lot
of money was needed for transport, typing, browsing and practical work.