Informal group came
into existence through the interaction of people as a result of socialization.
When individual meet and interact with one another, there is the tendency for
individuals with similar interest and characteristics to form powerful cohesive
groups in order to obtain organizational objectives. It therefore, the
objective of this research was find out the relationship that existed between
informal groups activities on productivity levels in organizations for
effective management of the informal groups in Nigeria organizations. A review
of the related interactive was made to provide a sound theoretical background
of the concept of informal groups. This was done by review of work previously
done by scholars on the concept of informal groups. By making use of a case
study, questionnaires was distributed or rather administrated to the workers at
University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. The data collected from the
filed was analyzed, the hypotheses, which were formulated, were tested through
the use of statistical models. The findings of the research were that workers
were found to be keenly interested in belonging to informal groups in their
work places such as the trade unions. They agreed that they derive benefits
groups offered by the groups to workers given the opportunity to work for their
benefits. Workers should realize their primary objectives through group
association. Managers should realize that team spirit is the important
characteristics of informal groups which motivate them to be effective in
organization. Informal organization are not officially recognized and do not
have any space in organizations organigram. My conclusion is that since
informal organizations continue to exist and can not be stopped or terminated
in any set up, it should continue to be accommodated as much as it does not
adversely affect the attainment of organizational goals. During recruitment,
selection and orientation, new employees should be made to join informal groups
such as trade union or any other, this makes the workers to socialize and adopt
quickly and better to the values existing in the organization. More
consultation of the informal groups by the management should be encouraged and
suggestions made by the workers be utilized as this motivates the workers more
for greater performance.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
statement of the Problem
Objective of the Study
of the study
of the study
scope of the study
of special terms
review of the related literature
Theoretical Frame Work for the Study
Current literature on postulated above
Design and Methodology
The research design
The source of data
Primary sources of data
Secondary sources of data
The Population for the Study
The Sample Design and determinations of
Method of data collection
Secondary methods of data collection
Methods of data presentation and Analysis
Presentation according to key research
Analysis Based on Research Questions
Summary of finding
List of frame for sampling
THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
development is a vital exercise that must be carried out with a successful
conclusion if technological bondage is to be avoided in the nation. In our society
today there is need for adopting a creative approach for our technological take
off. The reason is to encouraged employees to cultivate the ability of making
maximum use of resource available to them, develop new ways of resources
utilization that may come in the course of their job.
Nigeria independence, the nation has gone through a gradual rise in the level
of industrialization and the evolution of both small and complex organization.
An organization as defined by Griffin (1984:86) is a combination of people, or
human efforts, working in pursuit of certain common purposes called
organization goals. It is any group of two or more people working to achieve a
goal or goals.
from the small business units to the very large and complex corporate bodies.
There are two groups the formal and informal groups.
The formal group come
into being as a result of organizational hierarchy which defines expected
relationships among its workers in most cases, a group of people come together and
discuss about the problems of the company, individual problems and how the
problems should be handled. Also, talk about those with different opinion from
other and how such people should be treated or handled. Furthermore, this kind
of group will usually have its mission or area of activity spelled out.
groups, on the other hand, Michael (1985:1990).develop in response to the needs
of the people making up the group. As a result they do not have an explicitly
stated set of goals nor are there institutionally defined in and position of
authority. These aspects of an informal group develop as a result of group of
individual with the same objectives. Hence, informal groups are not set up by
the management of the organization but arise as a result of people with similar
interest interacting and also as a result of friendship association. Most
cases, group of people come together and discuss about the company’s problems,
some individual problems and how they should be dealt with, does who have contrary
opinion from others would be convinced, are forced to accept the opinion spell
out by other members of the groups.
comment succinctly shows the existence of informal groups in an organization.
These groups although not created by the management of the organization are
very powerful and have considerable influence on individual members. Members
are observed to be often committed to the achievement of the group objectives.
These objectives of the informal groups sometimes go contrary with organizations
it is very important for the management to be aware of the existence of these
groups and understand how they work. Some managers fail to realize the fact
that informal groups work under certain conditions which dominate the formal
organization and neglect the efforts of management.
they can be pervasive with some managers themselves belonging to the informal
groups. Depending on whether they are favourable or unfavourable, this may
result to the increase or decrease in the productivity of the organization.
Improper management of the informal groups may also lead to dissatisfaction of
workers, absenteeism, personal turnovers, grievances and conflicts and these
may adversely affect the stability of an organization.
matter of fact, there are potential benefits to be tapped from the existence
and activities of the informal groups. The management can only tap the benefits
when it is willing to work with them effectively without engaging in measures
to suppress the informal organization.
1.2 The Statement of
organizations have been trying to improve individual productivity through
researches and product development, employment of high skilled and experienced
workers. Despite these efforts, productivity is declining in a organization who
is to be blamed is still declining or has remained low and unimpressive.
What is actually
responsible for the continuous decline in productivity despite serious efforts
by the management, who have control over these group is yet to be achieved from
the above assertions, it become imperative or necessary to research and conduct
an assessment on the influence of informal groups on organizational
Do informal group
activities influence organization decision-making?
To provide answers to
this problem motivated the researcher to carry out this project.
It become imperative
or necessary to research and conduct an assessment on the influence of informal
groups on organizational productivity.
1.3 The Objective of
The objectives of this
1. To determine the
effects of informal group activities on organization productivity.
2. To find out the actual
relationship between the informal groups and management in the organization.
3. To discover the
concern and contribution of informal groups towards the realization of the
1.4 Research Questions
formulated under listed questions to provide a guide in the course of this
1. To what extent do
informal group activities affects organizational productivity?
2. What is the actual
relationship between informal groups and management in the organization?
3. To what extent
informal group influence the organizational productivity?
4. To what extent do
informal group activities contribute to the realization of the organizational
1.5 Significance of
The existence of
informal groups in organizations have negative or positive influence which may
pronounced or silent but vital to the achievement of organizational objectives.
controlling the informal group activities might become possible when an
empirical study has been conducted and some facts about the relationship
existing between these factors informal groups, formal groups and the management
within an organization are revealed the identification of the needs of the
individual workers will help the management to motivate the workers better for
research would be useful to organizations, academia and consultants to
organizations. If also provide a platform for further work on the topic by
1.7 Scope of The Study
The scope of this
study was limited to cover type of groups, reasons for joining groups,
activities of informal groups informal group leadership roles, problems of
informal groups and the effects on the productivity in the organization.
1.8 Definition of Special
For easy understanding
of this work the following technical terms are necessary to be interpreted by
UNTH: University of Nigeria
WAEC: West African
HND: Higher National
OND: Ordinary National
BSc: Bachelor Degree of