The modern world is information oriented, thus
management becomes more concerned about communication with employees. Hence
communication is vital tool for effective management in an enterprise.
The need for effective communication has become
paramount because most managers found it difficult to understand why efficiency
is not as certain in an organization.
However, communication integrates, coordinate and
synchronize organization activities. In an organization, there is need for
harmonization of overall activities, this can be done through communication.
According to Koontz H. Weihrich (2008) 12th
edition of management at global and entrepreneurial perspective page 22 defined
communication as the process of transferring information meaningfully from one
Communication is a fundamental aspect of all human
interactions: through languages, humanity has recorded its history and transmit
its culture from one generation to another. The ability to communicate has
enable human being to build societies, organization and other social group that
make for survival and social wellbeing.
Communication constitutes about 60% managers
tasks. It takes the following form: directive conservation, request and
instruction. The mix include not only oral and written form of one
communication but gestures, positive dress and other visual signals.
Communication can mostly be facilitated through
language and language is purely abstract in nature thus a well spoken language
earns benefits and purpose of communication. The more an individual increases
its vocabulary, the like/she visualize his words, object and phrase. Many
people attach difficult meaning to gesture communication and as such it poses
problem. Henry Fayol “studies unity of direction” in his 14 principles of
management which means that each group of activities with the same objective
must have one head and one plan. While Barnard in his popular book “the
function of the executive” saw maintenance of organizational communication as
top of his life of the three basic execution functions. Perhaps Bandas and
Barret expressed the most eloquent when they write: It is not a secondary or
derived aspect of organizational activity and it’s the best process out of
which all other functions derive. With reference to the subject matter, the
main purpose of this extended essay is to see the causes and effect of
communication breakdown on an organization and suggest possible solutions to
these problems with a view to enhancing organization efficiency.
of the Essay
The objective of this extended essay
constitutes the following:
To assess the effect
of communication on the field of management.
To identify the
existing communication barriers in an organization.
To access the
contribution and important role played by effective communication in an organization
towards enhancing production and profitability.
To find out what
communication is all about, how it is done, what instruments are used and what
qualities can make up a system of communication effective in an organization.
To ascertain and
identify the problems of ineffective communication and to suggest possible
solution so as to achieve better communication network in an enterprise.
To identify the
possible barriers that lead to communication breakdown.
To know if there is
any relationship between effective communication and performance of employees.
To know if there is
any relationship between communication and effective management.
of the Essay
It is my sincere hope that this extended essay
would be of benefit to academicians and the students of business administrative
studies at all levels and member of the public who would stand to benefit from
the work, especially managers, administrative officers both in the public and
private sector. Again it can also be used by researchers as prelude to another
research or reference material for use by entrepreneurs who may find the work
Besides, it is my belief that this essay will be
found useful by the enterprise and consequently other organizations which may
wish to achieve their established objectives. This is because communication in
both private and public undertaking be it non-profit or profit motive play a
vital role in enhancing productivity due to the fact that it integrates the
management functions in an organization. Since it influence action towards the
welfare of organization. Indeed, communication also brings about utilization,
improvement and retention of various organization manpower (labour force).
Moreso, communication is important in that, it
leads, directs, motivates and create a climate in which people want to
contribute to achieve organizational objectives and goals.
of the Essay
The essay intends to highlight the barriers to
effective communication in an organization with particular emphasis on how it
affects the performance of employees, with a view to proffer lasting solutions.
Though it is imperative for the writer to narrow his area of study. This is
simply because the problem of communication in effectiveness of an extensive
area of study.
Therefore it becomes extremely difficult for one
to cover the whole range of the problem due to the:
The art of the
financial funds to carryout a comprehensive essay.
The problem of not
having free access to some vital documents which will help to facilitate the
essay as a result of their confidential or classified status.
The study is limited
by time: The time allocated of data from the organization used to collides with
the writer’s lecture houses.
It is difficult to
be able to speak to highly placed personalities in order to make inquiry.
Despite all the above constraints, I was able to
lay my hands on some vital documents. I had been opportuned to speak to some
personalities who gave me all the necessary information that guided me through
this write -up.
of the Essay
Conflict is one disadvantage of communication.
Employees may use communication to disagree and argue with each other and with
management. Conflicts causes tension among employees and can halt operations,
disrupt meetings and prevent task completion. Source of conflict include lack
of structure, lack of transparent communication and personality differences.
Organizational leaders also use communication to mediate and control conflict
to lessen the effect of employee disagreement.
There are some limitations of communication:
Where there is distrust or suspicion between two communicants, a wrong interpretation
of what is said is likely to occur. Such messages may be greatly distorted
especially when melayed to a third party, with distrust even the best statement
can be misinterpreted as having a hidden message or may be said to be out of
These include geographical separation and locational distance which the media
of communication especially face to face conversation.
Another example is a wall that separate persons
from group, giving too little or no interaction inter-personally between public
servants distracting noises and other physical characteristics of the immediate
Content and Context:
These are concerned not only with
language but also with attitudes and over behavior. This is evidenced in that
symbols and words convey different meaning to different people.
Inference occurs when a person makes an assumption about what is being
communicated. When assumptions are made, it may be the time that situation is
People with different background tend to see things and interpret them
differently. The move divergent the background the danger of misunderstanding
Some words may carry a different meaning to the respondent from what the
conveyor intends e.g. professionals and highly technical groups tends to
develop specialized language known as jargons cannot be easily understood by
Effective Communication occurs when a message is
completely understood by its recipient. Communication encompasses most areas of
life. It is used in both business and personal relationships.
Communication is intended to inform, persuade or
inspire the listener. Some advantages of effective communication are: it provides
direction, clarity and purpose.
Provides Direction: Effective
Communication is able to give clear direction and vision. It accurately defines
goals, provides the tools to accomplish these goals, and outlines the steps of
the process. Without direction, listener will be left to use his own judgment
on how to accomplish a task, which can lead to confusion and frustration.
Effective communication provide clarity to avoid any confusion. Without clarity
messages can be ambiguous, lacking definition and purpose. Misunderstanding
commonly occurs when people don’t understand exactly what is being communicated
to or expected of them: clarity comes through effective communication; asking
questions and repeating messages to the sender.
When people know what is expected of them, the timeframe they have in which to
accomplish goals, and the reward for completing those goals, it adds purpose to
the task they are performing. People who have purpose are move satisfied with
their jobs and are more likely to remain loyal to the company for which they
Effective communication also adds purpose to
personal relationships by defining each partner’s intention and commitment.
is defined as the process of exchanging message between five parties with the
aims of having such message understood and appropriate action be taken.
Is defined as a group of people with a common goal to achieve
This is defined as a group of people which are similar in one or more ways and
which form the subject of study in a particular study.
Sample is defined as a fractional represent actives of an object from where
inferences is drawn.
Information are processed data or result from logical manipulation of data
which allows decision making.
those facts and figures about people, machine, objectives and places etc are
This is a term used to refer to as people on top level of management.
those low rank workers that carryout the duties assed to them.
Is the person that initiates an ideas and wishes to share it with somebody.
Refers to as that person that receive the message record it to understand it.
This is the process of transcribing the message into symbolic form e.g. through
writing, picture and speech.