In am attempt
to develop and improve the standard of living and eradicate poverty in Asari –
Torm local government area this study was carried out, it highlighted public
policy and grass root development in Nigeria, with a critical appraisal of the
National Poverty Eradication Programme. The programme uses personnel, money and
material resources to achieve its goals and objectives.
study is aimed at heightening the significant role of effective and efficient
implementation of decided policy like the National Poverty Eradication
Programme (NAPEP) in rural development with particular reference to Asari –
Torn Local Government Area of Rivers – State.
public policy formulation for grass-root development in Nigeria could be
regarded as a new direction toward poverty alleviation programme while the lack
of proper planning and implementation causes a poor level of efficiency of its
outcome; which includes lack of consultation with community people (chiefs,
elders) by the NAPEP officials, poor orientation & motivation of people
toward NAPEP programme, corruption on the part of the NAPEP officials etc.
ascertain and examine these problems, data were therefore collected based on
both primary and secondary sources and a total of 25 questionnaires were
administered recording a 100% return. In the test of hypothesis, chi-square
technique was used with 5% level of significance (( = 0.05) and percentage pattern were used in analyzing the
analyzing the data many findings were made, which actually substantiated the
fact that poor public policy formulation and implementation remains the most
devastating problem militating against the alleviation of poverty and
grass-root development through the activities of NAPEP programme.
the study ends with a conclusion and recommendation aimed at solving the
problem of poor public policy formulation and implementation in Nigeria which
including creation of awareness, motivation, proper consultant with community
leaders, transparency and well-organized NAPEP programme and activities, proper
administration, training and development, etc.
TABLE OF CONTENT
page - - - - - - - - i
- - - - - - - - ii
- - - - - - iii
Abstract - - - - - - - - v
of Content - - - - - - - vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
of the study - - - - 1
of problem - - - - - 2
Objectives of study - - - - - 3
Significance of study - - - - - 4
Literature review - - - - - - 6
Hypotheses - - - - - - 13
Methodology - - - - - - 14
Theoretical Frame work - - - 14
Method of data collection - - - 15
Method of data analysis - - - 16
Scope and limitation of study - - - 17
Clarification of key concept - - - - 18References - - - - - - 20
CHAPTER TWO: PUBLIC POLICY
concept and nature of public policy - - 22
Meaning of public policy - - - - 24
Process of Policy formulation, implementation and
evaluation - - - - - - - 25
The importance of public policy - - - 28
Problem of policy formulation and implementation - 29
The challenges of public policy making - - 31References - - - - - - 33
CHAPTER THREE: GRASS ROOT DEVELOPMENT
is Development? - - - - 35
Historical Background of Local Government in Nigeria. - - - - - - - 36
Structure, of Local Government Administration in Nigeria. - - - - 38
Role of Local Government Administration as engine of Grass root Development. - - 41References - - - - - - 44
CHAPTER FOUR: NATIONAL POVERTY
ERADICATION PROGRAMME (NAPEP)
Background of NAPEP - - - 45
NAPEP as a tool for Grass-root Development, it roles. - - - - - - - 48
The problem of NAPEP towards Grass-root Development. - - - - - - 55
The challenges of NAPEP towards Grass-root Development.
- - - - - - 58
of Hypothesis - - - - - 60References - - - - - - 77
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND
- - - - - - - 78
Conclusion - - - - - - 82
Recommendation - - - - - 86Bibliography - - - - - - 91
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Successive governments in Nigeria have tried to resolve some
societal problems by enacting or putting into place different policies at one
time or the other. For example, in order to reduce the high rate of poverty in
the country, the Federal Government introduced some policies aimed at reducing
the poverty level by 2010.
This was the case in Asari-Toru
local government area of Rivers State. It is true that the Asari – Toru Local Government council both
past and present have embarked on several developmental policies. Nevertheless,
the incidence and scourge of poverty have worsened over the years.
The people from that area still
live in abject poverty, no good and accessible roads, no good health care
facilities, no better pipe borne water, the people depend solely on water from
the well which has led to sickness and diseases because it is not well treated
and so prone to water borne diseases; also no sound electricity system put in
With all the different policies,
the people still live in abject
suffering, like the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) put in place
by this present administration also in an effort to reduce poverty, what are
the aspect of halving the incidence of poverty by 2015, we shall treat this in
our subsequent writing, because the question is pertinent to the issue that,
since the creation of the local government, the yearning and aspiration of the
people have not been met. They still wallow in poverty.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The study is specifically geared towards providing tentative
answers to the following questions:
factor weakens the National Poverty Eradication Programmes and other policies
geared towards poverty alleviation and grass-root development.
the prospects of the poverty alleviation policies like NAPEP put in place to
halve poverty in the grass-roots areas by 2010?
are the measures put in place to be used in implementing the policy of poverty
alleviation in the grass-root areas?
far has the policy of NAPEP faired so far in its different programmes, and what
is the importance of this public policy
programme as a tool for grass-root development especially in ASALGA L. G. A. of
Rivers – State.
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY:
The aim of this study is to highlight the significant role
of public policy and grass-root development in Nigeria, with a special focus on
the National Poverty Eradication Programme on Asari – Toru local government
Secondly, is to examine if the
policy measures used in implementing its policies are really the best suitable
measures that would enhance development and reduce poverty rate in the
Thirdly, is to determine the
extent at which the poverty eradication programme have been carried out in the
grass-root level and explain if really it has succeeded in its implementation or its failures.
Fourthly, is to show the prospect
of NAPEP put in place to fight poverty in the local government levels etc.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY:
The purpose of this study is to show and justify the
importance of public policy to the grass-root people.
The study is very necessary
because it will not only tell us how public policy on poverty alleviation has
performed in the local government
levels but it will also shed light on the way out towards poverty alleviation.
Also, it will form a basis for further research on poverty alleviation and
other related policies through findings and researches.
To justify the importance of the
policy of poverty alleviation, the bottom-up approach to the programme
implementation and monitoring should be looked into.
Also, the study is going to show,
in view of the fact that poverty is a phenomenon which has threatened the
survival of mankind especially in the rural or grass-root areas, some
development effort to
alleviate poverty embarked upon by the government through various programmes,
prominent among them are:-
Service to our people.
Rural Electrification projects.
Health Care Projects.
Drinking Water Projects.
The National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP)
Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP).
All these were programmes put in place by government in one
time or the other to improve the living standard of the people at the
grass-root level. So, this study will critically appraise them.
At the end of
this work, policy makers and other researchers will find this study very
relevant if properly looked into, because it is going to provide answers to
policy problems and implementation in the grass-root level.
1.5 LITERATURE REVIEW:
importance of literature review is that, it builds a link between previous
intellectual works and the current attempts. So the literature review will
focus on the rigorous appraisal of poverty alleviation.
S. (2001: 1 – 3) has opined that whether used in a relative or absolute sense,
poverty denotes a situation in which the individual does not enjoy the minimum
acceptable standard of living as defined by the World Bank, Poverty can be due to variety of causes,
including unemployment and low pay, particularly in a generally weak
environment such as the grass-root area.
further stated that poverty is considered a global phenomenon which threatens
the survival of mankind, the
United Nations declared 1996 the International year for the eradication of
poverty, with every 17th, of October every year as the date for poverty
eradication day, and also 1997 – 2006 as the decade for Eradication of Poverty.
In pursuance of this target, government and civil society in the country have
set up different polices to curb the poverty problem.
(2001: 12), speaking on the nature of involvement of beneficiaries, emphasized
that, experience from the past poverty alleviation programmes has shown the
inability to involve the people in their community planning and implementation towards poverty alleviation. However,
he stated that one of the main focuses of the National Poverty Eradication
Programme (NAPEP) is the adoption of the bottom-up approach to programme implementation
there is need to extend the concept to include direct participation of the
beneficiaries or benefiting communities in project identification. This non
–involvement has been
detraction from appropriateness of projects as well as their sustainability.
is because the top – down approach widely adopted in project identifications
and selection has often led to beneficiaries not associating themselves with
such projects. Therefore, there should be sufficient participation of the
grass-roots people in the identification and implementation of projects
affecting them. This will not only increase their commitment but will also
de-emphasize the erst while perception of such programmes as conduit pipes for
national cake sharing.
(1998: 10 – 12) writing on the state of the nation of (SAP), has outlined the
the country which gave rise to SAP as follows:
The economy was facing a crisis of dwindling revenue
from oil the nation’s major foreign exchange.
There was high rate of unemployment in the country, and
corruption was pervasive.
per-capital income was rapidly decreasing even as there was high rate of
inflation, coupled with a very high level of domestic and foreign debt.
He further observed that SAP was
not a good omen for the country especially the Nigeria Labour, which said SAP
affected adversely and further marginalized the workers, which led to
Okongwu, C. (1987: 4), the then
Minister of Finance, commented
on poverty alleviation policy that they combine a nexus of measures aimed at
promoting economic efficiency and long term growth with stabilization policies
designed to restore balance of payment equilibrium and price stability, which
never yielded any positive effect.
Edesiri, (1986: 16), speaking on
the different policies put in place, said like the River Basin Development
Authority (RBDA), which was given the responsibility to develop, irrigate and
cultivate numerous river basins in the country especially the Niger Delta city
area failed to solve the problems.
That inspire of the objectives of the River Basin development
Authority, water problem still remain a big log in the wheels of farmers. Even
in the catmint areas of the authority most bore-holes are dry. This adversely
affects the irrigation prospect of the farmers and farms.
The poor performance of the
authority has compelled government to sell off some of the authority’s property
via public auction.
On NAPEP Promise Keeper Programme
(P.K.P), Dr. Magnus
Kpakol who is National co-ordinator of NAPEP re-affirmed that the partnership
with religious bodies would involve the provision of matching funds to an
amount raised by a religious group to provide interest free – micro credit to
its members who fall into the provisions categories. That he said would empower
the poor by developing a working partnership with other viable sources in the
fight against poverty.
Speaking on the different projects of NAPEP, Dr. Kpakol
said, like under the farmers empowerment programme, NAPEP has disbursed N240
million and another N250 million for the capacity acquisition programme.
The former chief Economic Adviser to the president further
stated that the old set-up in the programme was perceived by beneficiaries as
an agency to be ripped off.
He said the sad development
largely affected the Keke-NAPEP project, which beneficiaries dishonestly almost ruined. Which he
said they have not recorded enough success in that area, that is because of the
way it was done, people took the vehicle and disappeared to another part of the
Olawoja Ajobola, from Lagos state
speaking on poverty alleviation programme in the (Guardian of Friday, May 30,
2003 page 17), cried out that
their monthly N10,000 stipend which NAPEP was supposed to have paid to them,
has not been paid for the past eight (8) month and no concrete effort has been
made to prepare them for the loan they are to collect at the expiration of the
two (2) years Mandatory Attachment Programme (MAP), which was supposed to be in
Emeka, Onuforo (Guardian, Thursday, August 4, 2005), writes
on “NAPEP boss task Governor’s over poverty eradication”, said the National
coordinator of NAPEP, Dr. Magnus Kpakol speaking in a programme tasks a group
of governors in Kaduna to join hand with the Federal Government in waving good
bye to poverty.
Dr. Kpakol told the governors that the new NAPEP initiative
would provide economic empowerment to the poor in Nigeria by developing a
winning partnership with other sources of support in the fight against poverty,
he added that other funds would be sourced from interested Nigerians abroad for
the provisions of essential infrastructure in their communities back here in
The primary targets of NAPEP,
Kpakol continued are the women, the youths and farmers, and others are trainees of the local
government poverty reduction programmes.
Dr. Kpakol also told the
governors that NAPEP is also giving N500 million for evolving credit around the
country, which is hoped to generate savings of over say N50 million.
NAPEP, he said now focuses on self reliance and the ‘can do’
spirit and transform the idea that everyone is a participant in the fight
against poverty which he said would create a winning strategy by generating
economic activities that would in turn assure well-being and guarantee
sustainability of efforts aimed at achieving the desired objectives of
attaining comfortable standard of living for the poor in Nigeria, he asserted.
These are what people have said
concerning public policy in respect to poverty alleviation in the country.
i) Lack of
consultation with elders, chiefs and community leaders in the local government
areas is responsible for the failure of public policies.
ii) Ignorance on the part of the citizens at the grass-root
level, due to poor orientation on the part of policy officials like. NAPEP
officials and other agencies cause
the low performance of poverty alleviation programmes.
iii) High level of corruption on the part of NAPEP officials and
the beneficiaries, seems to hamper the success of poverty alleviation
public policy programme and implementation due to selfish interest of policy
formulators, tends to be the cause of high rate of poverty levels in grass-root
i) Theoretical Frame Work:
A study that has to do with public policy and grass-root development
has to be examined against background of a social and sound theoretical
This study, therefore will be guided by
the “FUNCTIONAL APPROACH”, to local government performance. The approach assess
the efficiency and effectiveness of the local government implementation of
public policy and grass-root development in relation to poverty alleviation
programmes in Asari-Toru local government area of Rivers State.
is the view of the functionalist approach that the society is conceptualized as
a system of social relationship and cluster of relationship (institution)
features in the manner which it is organized into an ordered and self
maintaining entity, a common pattern of norms and values which ensures both the
reciprocal interdepence of its parts and consequent integration of the whole”.
Paul Filumer and Divid Silverman, (1972: 57).
Pulbic policy and implementation as a
tool for grass-root development has to be viewed using the functional approach.
Therefore, in the survival of grass-root system by the way of its operations,
which the policy implementers perform vis –a – vis the required condition of
their existence, the functional approach is the ideal type of theory to be
ii) Method of Data Collection:
This section is designed specifically to highlight the
procedures and instrument employed in getting relevant information pertinent to
of Data: Primary and Secondary sources of data would be
relevant in carrying out this research.
primary sources of data helps to source for reliable and valuable primary data which is necessary for
the study. It entails oral interview like questionnaires, which would be design
with extra care to avoid ambiguity, bias and misleading questions.
secondary sources of data collection would supplement the information provided
by the primary sources for use. It could be magazines, journals, form
newspapers, textbooks and other related unpublished materials etc.
IV. Method of Data Analysis:
The nature of data generated determines the types of
statistical techniques to be used in data analysis. Due to the nature of the
hypotheses and the method of data collection the “inferential statistical tool
method” will be used to help make proper predications and operaliziations about
the public policy and grass-root development in respect to the NAPEP
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY:
The study is limited to Asari-Toru local government area of
Rivers State, and its public policy and grass-root development programme, a
critical appraisal of the National Poverty Eradication Programme while, in the
process of the research many hitches were encountered, like the issue of
finance, which is the bedrock of any good research work or study, because
without the needed, or due to financial constraint, getting a first hand
information was difficult. This also hindered traveling to some designated areas
for getting some primary information coupled with the hard economic situations.
So, finance and transportation problems cause some kind of hindrances. Also was
the issue of time constraints. These hampered going to the grass-root area for
a better assement and getting of information and mostly was the fact that most
of them even the local government’s did not have websites for easy information
CLARIFICATION OF KEY CONCEPTS:
- DATA: These are raw informations gathered.
- IMPLEMENTATION: The translation of public policy
objectives into action leading to the achievement of set objectives, expressed
by policy makers.
- NAPEP: National Poverty Eradication Programme, set up in
2001 by the Obasanjo led administration to curb the poverty situation in the
- NAPEC: National Poverty Eradication Council. It is the
apex body for the formulation of policies on poverty in Nigeria.
- THEORY: It is a set of interelated construct, delimitation
and preposition that present the systematic view of phenomenon by specifying
relationship among variables with the purpose of explaining and predicting the
- POLICY: This is decision making on what should be done and
how, when and where? It involves development strategy and procedures.
- GRASS-ROOT: This can be describe as rural areas or group
of persons living in an existing environment.
Ajobola, O. (2003), NAPEP. The Guardian Friday, May 30
Aliu, A. (2001), National Poverty Eradication Programme
implementation, coordination and monitoring, NAPEP Secretariate, Abuja.
Edesiri, (1986): “Hunger in the land”, The African Guardian,
Lagos. October, 23.
Emeka, A. (2005); Governors task on Poverty Eradication. The
Guardian, Thursday page 27.
Leicheter, H. (1979); A Comparative Approach to Policy
Health Care Delivery in Four Nations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
NAPEP (2001); Arise Nigeria – Defeat Poverty. A Handbook on
Nnanna, O. J. (2001); Poverty Alleviation – A More Pragmatic
Approach. C.B.N Economic and
Financial Review, Vol. 39, No 4. page 4 -7.
Obasi, I. N. (1999); State – Labour Relations Under SAP
Nigeria; Sam Bookman Publishers.
Okongwu, C. (1987); A Review and Appraisal of the Structural
Adjustment Programme, Special
Press Briefing, Lagos: Government Printer.
Oloja, M., Onuorah, M. (2005, June 14); NAPEP set to achieve
goals, say Kpakol, The Guardian,
Tuesday Page 7.
Orjaiaku, E. (2003, May 23);
NAPEP Graduate Beneficiaries
Scheme. The Guardian Friday page
Paul Filmer, Davi Silverman (1972); New Direction in
Theory. Collier – Machillian
Ugwu, S. C. (1988), Federal System; The Nigeria
Enugu; Marry Dan Printing Company.
Usman, S. (2001); Poverty
Alleviation – A More Pragmatic
Approach. The Central Bank of Nigeria Economic and Financial
Review, Volume 39 number (4).