POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND THE 2015 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY RIVERS STATE)


POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND THE 2015 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY RIVERS STATE)

Department: public administartion project topics | Type: Project topics and materials | Format: Ms Word, PDF | Attribute: Documentation Only | Pages: 92 Pages | Chapters: 1-5 chapters | Price: ₦ 3,000.00

2,718 marked this research material reliable.
Call or whatsapp: +2347063298784 or email: info@researchcub.info
POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND THE 2015 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY RIVERS STATE)
POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND THE 2015 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY RIVERS STATE)

ABSTRACT

No Community or society can progress or develop without its individual being first developed. However, the individual cannot be developed in an atmosphere of full deprivation , frustration and victimization.Hence, in a society that is characterized by these vices, violence and revolt is a sine-qua-non and trends to be an end product readily available to those facing such situations. As such, we can posit that politics and violence are intertwined.The objective was to examine the prospect of political violence in and the factors responsible for the outbreak of violence in the 2015 Gubernatorial Elections in Rivers State. The researcher used the group theory as itstheoretical framework because of group and individual interest used in achieving theirpolitical ambitions. Data for the research were collected from primary and secondarysources. Relevant information gathered from primary sources involved the use ofstructured questionnaire and oral interviews were conducted . Thedata from primary and oral interviews were analyzed using frequency tables andpercentages. The analysis of the result shows that; ethno-religious consideration, lack ofpolitical will by government in implementing committee recommendations haveimpacted negatively on the electoral process in the 2016 Gubernatorial elections inRivers State.

Thus, the work is divided into five chapters; chapter one is a precursor, while chapter two reviews relevant literature, chapter three dwells on the Research methodology. Chapter fouer on the other hand, takes a cursory look at The presentation and data analysis of data. Lastly, chapter five is a round up of the earlier chapters. It summarizes the issues contained in the preceding chapters of this work, concludes the issues and proffers recommendations.Based on these findings it is recommended that there should be moreenlightenment campaigns to sensitize Nigerians on the dangers of political violence.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE

Background of the study

Statement of problem

Research Questions

Aims and Objectives of Research

Significance of the study

Scope of the study

Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

The concept of violence

Typologies of violence

 Political violence

Types of political violence

 Political violence in Nigeria

 The human right impact of political violence

Political violence in Rivers State

 Causes of Political violence

 Implications of political violence

 Recommendations/solutions

 Conclusion.

THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Design of the study

Population of the study

Sample size and sample techniques

Method of data collection

Validity and reliability instrument

Administration of instrument

Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendations

Bibliography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Violence is an ubiquitous phenomenon in every society and every sphere ofsocial life. It is not restricted to the political sphere alone. It cuts across every aspect ofhuman existence. This means that political violence is just a subset of violence. It takes many forms including kidnapping, assassination, arson, thuggery etc. This shows that we are in a violent world and the tendency to be violent increases by the day. Violence has no territorial boundary. It is as universal as it predates modernity. For instance,Ekiran (2006:286) notes that both the Biblical and Quaranic accounts of creation and theevents that followed in the Garden of Eden particularly Adam and Eve’s refusal to obeyGod’s simple instruction, amounts to violence of a sort.

Rejection of a superior’s injunction is tantamount to violent behavior; becausethe word violence has its roots from violation or infringement (Ninalowo, 2004; 18). Sowhen one violates or infringes on a laid down principle, it amounts to violence.

Therefore violence can be described as an unruly behavior perpetrated to express angerand dissatisfaction over some social issues which the perpetrators felt have affected unlikely to affect them in one way or another (Ekiran, 2006:285). It is an aggressivebehavior which more often than not involves physical combat which could inflict bodilyinjuries on both perpetrators and innocent people. It is an ill wind that blows no one any good.

With some degree of accuracy or certainty one could say that one type ofviolence or another is to be found in every human society. In other words, even the advanced countries and developing countries alike are not immune to violence. InNigeria, violence is commonly used as a political tool to achieve the perpetrators’ selfishends. This usually occurs during elections when one government is about to hand over power to another. The use of violence during elections has become a common feature ofthe Nigerian electoral process.

Elections are regarded as the hallmark of democratic governance in everydemocratic society. This is because elections are one of the ways through which peopleengage in political participation. Elections have become the most acceptable method bywhich citizens of an ever increasing number of political systems choose their leaders.

The appeal of elections lies principally in the opportunity that it provides for an entireelectorate to participate in choosing those that should govern them in a simple andpeaceful exercise (Momoh, 2005; 31).

Elections also provide the people with the opportunity to indicate their preferenceamong the policies and programmes presented to them by the rival leadership elementscontesting for political power (Ayeni – Akeke, 2008:27). Elections may also enable thepeople to remove unpopular leaders or force elected officials to listen to theirgrievances, particularly between elections. Most elected public officers are alwaysconscious of when their terms are over, they would need to fall back to the people torenew their mandate. Therefore, the fear that they might be rejected if they fail to heedto the complaints of the people in non-election years, makes them to pay attention to theviews and aspirations of the electorate.

Of all the functions that elections perform, it is the opportunity that it provides forthe people to choose their leader that is most emphasized. Yet the extent to which isprovides this opportunity varies from one political system to another. For example, in Totalitarian political systems, election is the means by which the leadership seeks toconfer legitimacy on the regime and government as well as the contestants nominated to face the electorate for approval (Lipjhart, 1994:48). It also serves as one of the means by which the government socializes the masses and mobilizes them to support itspolicies. In contrast, democratic political systems that permits open competition useelections to provide the people with the chance to choose between alternative leadershipcandidates and policies. This does not however mean that it is in all open andcompetitive political systems that election performs this function effectively and to someextent the effectiveness of elections as a vehicle of choice for the ordinary citizen is influenced by various factors e.g. whether the political parties provide distinctalternative leadership materials and programs etc. (Lipjhart, 1994:48).

The foregoing indicates that elections are a complex set of activities withdifferent variables that act and feed one another. It involves the participation of thepeople in the act of choosing their leaders and their own participation in governance (T.M.G., 2003:11). Elections are not necessarily about Election Day activities althoughit forms an important component. It encompasses activities before, during and afterelections. It involves the legal and constitutional framework of elections which are theregistration of political parties, party campaigns, the activities of electronic and printmedia in terms of access; it includes campaign financing, the activities of securityagencies and the government in power. It includes the authenticity and genuineness ofvoters register; the independence or lack of it of electoral agencies and organs. It includes the liberalism or otherwise of the political process in the country and theindependence of adjudicating bodies of elections (T.M.G., 2003:11).

During the last fifty four years, General Elections have been conducted eleventimes in Nigeria at irregular intervals: 1951, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1979, 1983, 1991/1993, 1997, 1998/99, and 2003 (Kurfi, 2005) and 2007. The first four were conducted underthe parliamentary system while the rest were held under the Presidential system ofgovernment. It is also important to state here that elections in Nigeria have always beencharacterized by several irregularities, which have always been politically motivated andthese have led to violence which has taken an appalling toll on human lives andproperty. There have always been widespread administrative failings, proceduralirregularities, and intentional efforts to carry out ballot fraud etc. The result of these isthat the general public’s faith and confidence in the fairness of the country’s electoral process suffers (TMG, 2003:12).

The build-up to the 2015 General Election in Nigeria has been marred by some violence. The CLEENFoundation Security Threat Assessment published in March 2015 found 15 states to be on the red threatlevel. On the other hand, in its Pre-Election Report and Advisory on Violence in Nigeria’s 2015 GeneralElections NHRC documented that at least 58 persons have been killed in elections and politically relatedviolence in Nigeria. More so, nearly 2 million people have been displaced in the North Eastern part ofNigeria as a result of the Boko Haram insurgency.

The March 28th Presidential Election has been hailed in many quarters as being largely peaceful and freeof post-election violence. Some attribute this relative peace to the laudable decision of President Jonathanto concede the election even before the official final results were announced, while others attribute theoutcome to the public commitment made by the key contenders to accept the outcome of the electionsand their charge to their supporters to eschew violence.

Ahead of the Gubernatorial Elections however, key concerns remain for public safety and security inNigeria. The gubernatorial elections present security challenges considering a number of factors namely:

a)    The likelihood of political parties to cling to, or win new states after consideration of the outcome of thepresidential polls;

b)    The presence of local dynamics which might not have been in play in the presidentialelections –including zoning of candidacy, power of incumbency as well as pressures to install a preferredcandidate.

This policy brief summarizes the risk of electoral violence ahead of the gubernatorial electionsand presents recommendations. 

From the recent Security Threat Assessment, 15 states are at risk of electoral violence in Nigeria. TheNHRC advisory further emphasized the conflict risk potential of 3 states out of the 15 identified in theSTA. During and following the presidential polls however, localized conflicts have been reported in somestates of the federation including Rivers, Imo, Edo and states in the North Eastern part of the country.

Boko Haram terrorists are suspected to have detonated a bomb killing about 20 in Gombe State as well asa number of election-day attacks.

In Benue State, violence was reported also on election-day. Series of attacks were also reported in Rivers State on election-day. In Rivers, the situation is thought to have escalated with continued attacks andviolence being reported in the state. According to the All Progressives Congress (APC) in Rivers, 55 of itssupporters have been killed in electoral violence in the state. At least 124 cases of electoral violence arecurrently being investigated by the Nigeria Police Force with some perpetrators already charged to court.

Elections are often surrounded by some degree of tension and risk of violence in Nigeria. The followingstates have been identified as high risk states for electoral violence as we get closer to the gubernatorialelections coming up on the 11th April, 2015 are Benue, Nasarawa, Niger Plateau, Adamawa, Borno, Yobe,Taraba, Bauchi, Gombe, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Bayelsa, Rivers, Delta, Lagos, Ekiti, Oyo, Abia and Ebonyi.

Rivers State has been a hotbed of violence in the pre-election period. By February, 2015, the AllProgressive Congress (APC) claimed that it has lost 30 members to political violence in the state. Thisincluded party supporters attacked on their way to a campaign rally as well as gun attacks during acampaign rally in the state. Violence has continued in the state in protest over alleged shortcomings of thepresidential polls. The APC now claim that it has lost 55 members in post-election violence in Rivers State.

The political and electoral violence in Rivers State arising from the presidential election and the proteston the 29th March, 2015 led to the imposition of a curfew on the state. It is pertinent to state that more isneeded to protect lives and property ahead of the gubernatorial state.

Key Issues for consideration in Rivers include the outcome of the presidential election in the state; thesuspected militant activities; the strength and desperate politics by politicians in the state; the visiblepresence of the military in the state as well as the agitations over zoning of political office by politicalparties in the state. On the other hand, Obio/Akpor, Okrika, Tai are among the LGAs to watch in the state.

Nigeria’s 2015 Presidential Election was Unique in Many Ways

First,it marked an unprecedented uninterrupted 5th presidential election sincereturn to democracy in 1999. The first Republic lasted only 6 years from1960 to 1966, the second Republic lasted only 4 years from 1979 to 1984,while the third Republic was truncated after 4 years of expensive transitionprogrammes between 1989 and 1993.

Second, it was unique because for the first time, an incumbentpresident lost an election. Even though many incumbent governors have lostelections at the state level, the “power of incumbency” has always beenpotent at the federal level.

Third, this marked the first time the loser in a presidential electionwill call to congratulate the winner even before the official results werefinalised.

 Fourth, it is also the first time there will be no post-election violencedespite predictions by different observers and commentators including theUS.

 Fifth, it is also the first time an electronic device called the Cardreader and a chip card called the Permanent Voter’s Card (PVC) wereintroduced by the electoral body (INEC).

Has Nigeria come of age politically? Are all these a fluke due only tothe overwhelming desire for change or a true test of democraticconsolidation?

POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND THE 2015 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY RIVERS STATE)

Additional Information

  • The Project Material is available for download.
  • The Research material is delivered within 15-30 Minutes.
  • The Material is complete from Preliminary Pages to References.
  • Well Researched and Approved for supervision.
  • Click the download button below to get the complete project material.

Frequently Asked Questions

In-order to give you the best service available online, we have compiled frequently asked questions (FAQ) from our clients so as to answer them and make your visit much more interesting.

We are proudly Nigerians, and we are well aware of fraudulent activities that has been ongoing in the internet. To make it well known to our customers, we are geniune and duely registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission of the republic of Nigeria. Remember, Fraudulent sites can NEVER post bank accounts or contact address which contains personal information. Free chapter One is always given on the site to prove to you that we have the material. If you are unable to view the free chapter 1 send an email to info@researchcub.info with the subject head "FREE CHAPTER 1' plus the topic. You will get a free chapter 1 within an hour. You can also check out what our happy clients have to say.


Students are always advised to use our materials as guide. However, if you have a different case study, you may need to consult one of our professional writers to help you with that. Depending on similarity of the organization/industry you may modify if you wish.


We have professional writers in various disciplines. If you have a fresh topic, just click Hire a Writer or click here to fill the form and one of our writers will contact you shortly.


Yes it is a complete research project. We ensure that our client receives complete project materials which includes chapters 1-5, full references, questionnaires/secondary data, etc.


Depending on how fast your request is acknowledged by us, you will get the complete project material withing 15-30 minutes. However, on a very good day you can still get it within 5 minutes!

What Clients Say

Our Researchers are happy, see what they are saying. Share your own experience with the world.
Be polite and honest, as we seek to expand our business and reach more people. Thank you.

A Research proposal for political violence and the 2015 presidential election in nigeria (a case study rivers state):
Reviews: A Review on political violence and the 2015 presidential election in nigeria (a case study rivers state), political, violence, 2015 project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
No Community or society can progress or develop without its individual being first developed. However, the individual cannot be developed in an atmosphere of full deprivation , frustration and victimization.Hence, in a society that is characterized by these vices, violence and revolt is a sine-qua-non and trends to be an end product readily available to those facing such situations. As such, we can posit that politics and violence are intertwined.The objective was to examine the prospect of political violence in and the factors responsible for the outbreak of violence in the 2015 Gubernatorial Elections in Rivers State. The researcher used the group theory as itstheoretical framework because of group and individual interest used in achieving theirpolitical ambitions. Data for the research were collected from primary and secondarysources. Relevant information gathered from primary sources involved the use ofstructured questionnaire and oral interviews were conducted . .. public administartion project topics

POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND THE 2015 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY RIVERS STATE)

Project Information

Share Links

Download Post
Download Post

Search for Project Topics

Project topics in Departments

Do you need a writer for your academic work?