Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iv
Table of Contents - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - viii
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - 6
1.4 Significance of the Study - - -- - - - 7
1.5 Scope of Study - - - - - - - - 8
1.6 Limitation - - - - - - - - - 8
1.7 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - 9
2.1 Political Crisis and Return to Militancy - - 17
2.2 Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger
Delta (MEND) - - - - - - - 19
3.1 Theoretical Framework and Research Method - 25
3.2 Research Method - - - - - - 30
4.1 Date Presentation and Analysis - - - - 37
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 46
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 48
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 49
This study examined youth militancy
and amnesty in the Niger Delta, a case study of Warri Metropolis. The
study was base on primary and secondary data and analysis. The study
reveals among things that youth militancy in the Niger Delta is as a
result of the neglect of the people by the government. They produce
almost 90% of the nation’s economy but the people there are not
It was argued that with oil becoming
dominant, derivation was reduced from 50% to zero% which the Niger
Delta people seen as being grossly unfair and an insult to the
sensibilities of the people of Niger Delta. This injustice led to an
uprising by the Ijaw’s led by a former student leader Isaac Alaka Boro.
The revolt according to political
analysts was put down in twelve days. It was also been argued that the
Nigeria civil war that raged from 1967 to 1970 had the fight for the
control of the Niger Delta oil wealth as part of its causes
1.1 BACKROUND OF THE STUDY
Strategically located along the gulf of
Guinea and a top enormous high quality oil reserves, the three Nigerian
states of Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers and some others- commonly referred
to as the Niger Delta have been plagued with armed groups and insurgents
for decades. Although its tremendous resource wealth should make the
Delta one of Western Africa’s most prosperous regions, decades of
neglect by the Nigeria government widespread corruption, and the
environmental damage caused by the MNCS, operating in the region has
alienated and marginalized the local population and allowed armed groups
to proliferate. Compensation paid out by the MNCS for appropriated and
polluted land has led to inter-communal and inter-ethnic violence, most
notably between the Ijaws and the Itsekiris in the Warri area of Delta
Since the discovery of oil in Delta this
type of ethnic conflict has been driven primarily by the desire to
control resources along disputed community borders.
Weather these armed groups are genuinely
highing for social justice for their communities or are interested
merely in profit, most sustain themselves through criminal activity such
as piracy, kidnapping, and oil theft or “Bunkering”. While it is hard
to estimate how much oil is actually stolen, there are indications that
it might be as high as 5-10% of Nigeria’s total national production.
In an effort to combat oil bunkering,
the Nigerian government began to increase its military presences in the
Delta in 2003: this culminated in the deployment of a Joint Task Force
(JTF) in 2008. However, these actions triggered serious unintended
consequences, as some military personnel took the opportunity to
participate in the illicit trade. In addition, reports of extortion,
rape, and the general intimidation of the populace by the security
forces drove even more alienated youths into the armed groups.
While violence was initially directed at
the MNCs, the attempts of the JTF to curtail the militant groups led to
increased fighting between the militants and the army. Yet, aside from
the military and some sporadic and fleeting programs, the Nigerian
government has virtually no presences in the region. As an executive
puts it: “you won’t fine police stations, court house, or primary
schools for vast stretches. There are no post offices. There is no
presence of the government for miles. No electricity is provided. There
is no water supply. Beyond legitimate concerns for human right, the
United States was clear strategic interests in a stable Niger Delta. In
the run up to national elections in 2007, militancy was at fever pitch
and the combination of that and sabotage reduced oil industry output by
25-35% of capacity. Despite the clear instability of the Delta, Nigeria
continued to rank 15th in global oil output in 2008, and was the 5th largest supplier of oil to the U.S.
As attack on the local oil industry have
caused clear spikes in the worldwide price of crude, a steady and
secure supply from the Delta would go a long way towards stabilizing the
global market, helping to wean the United States from its reliance on
Middle Eastern imports, and enhancing energy security.
The question now is: what are the
possible causes and the likely consequences of the youth militancy and
amnesty in the Niger Delta (Warri Metropolis).
Some of the answers to the above questions can be found in the statement problem that follows.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
For sometimes now, people have
been making their views known and the issue relating to youth military
and amnesty in the Niger-Delta (Warri Metropolis).
While some people see militancy as the
failure of government to settle or compensate the inhabitants of the
Niger Delta, while others see as criminal behavior. Their conclusion is
that the militants use this means to enrich themselves and not for the
entire members of the area.
It is with this situation that
this project work was carried out to determine the relationship between
youth militancy and amnesty in the Niger Delta (Warri Metropoly).
However, the researcher shall focus and seek answers to the following research questions:
- What do you think is the cause of militancy in the Niger Delta?
- Does militancy stop the marginalization of the Niger Delta?
- Does amnesty tried to stop the problem of militancy in the Niger Delta?
- Does amnesty help in the education of some militants?
- Had politician contributed in the succeeding of militancy
- What do you thing is the solution to militancy in the Niger Delta?
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
- To determine the extent of militancy among youth in Niger Delta (Warri Metropolis)
- To determine the issue that led to militancy in the Niger Delta (Warri Metropolis)
- To determine the influence of amnesty on the youth in the Niger Delta (Warri Metropolis)
- To determine the influence of amnesty on the educational development of the Niger Delta youth.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is basically produced to
fulfill an academic requirement. Nevertheless, it is hoped that it would
go a long way to encourage amnesty among the Niger Delta youth.
The study is not intended to break an
entire new ground, rather, its undertaken in the premises is that it
will add to the existing literature in the area of issues of youth
militancy and amnesty. In addition, this study is very necessary
especially at this time of kidnapping in Nigeria. And will add empirical
knowledge of youth militancy and amnesty.
The findings will also provide useful
background information to future researchers in the contribution of
amnesty for nation buildings.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
This research work is made to cover
issues relating to the youth militancy and amnesty in the Niger Delta as
limited to Warri Metropolis. Solutions and recommendations shall be
made to those problems in view of trying to put an end as in a lasting
A list of constraints had to be checked
against in the course of this study, the most being the time factor.
This project has to be produced while at the same time attending to
lectures. During class work (assignments) and more so, preparing for
Furthermore, financial constrains was
also a major factor as regard to proper compellation of this work. This
is because no work does not involve money.
However, my findings were limited to the data and information made available to me by all concerned.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- 1. Youth: The quality or state of
being young. Young people considered as a group. The time of life when a
person is young especially the time of life before a child becomes an
- 2. Militant: Using or willing to use force or strong pressure to achieve your aims, especially to achieve social or political change.
- 3. Amnesty: A period at time during which people can admit to a crime or give up weapons without being punished.
- 4. Education: Education can be
defined as the systematic socialization of the young generation by
religion and moral belief, feeling of Nationality and collective opinion
of all kind.
Education could also be defined as the
transmission of knowledge, skill and values etc. which an individual
needs to master his physical and social environment and adopt himself to
the demands of the society of which he is a member.