Among the predictors of students’
academic performance and psychosocial development is the degree of
comfortability and conduciveness of school environment. The study
examined the impact of school environment on students’ academic
performance and psychosocial development in Nigeria using a case study
of secondary students in Ikeja Local Government. The survey design in
collaboration with the purposive sampling technique was used to select
120 secondary school students from 10 selected secondary schools in the
study area. The instrument used for data collection was the
questionnaire, which was administered to the respondents. The data
obtained was subjected to descriptive statistic techniques and the
chi-squared analysis. The results revealed that physical school
environment; school location and school facilities significantly
influenced the academic performance of the selected students. Also,
school environment, in its entirety significantly impacted on the level
of students’ psychosocial development. Based on these findings, the
study recommends that modern and functional educational facilities such
as libraries, laboratories, ICT centers, health centers, sport centers,
toiletries and other instructional materials should be provided and made
accessible to the students and teachers should be friendly and
courteous towards their students so that they- the students, can consult
them whenever they have any disturbing issue(s).
Keywords: School, Environment, Academic Performance, Psychosocial
Education is highly imperative to all
countries of the world regardless of their level of development.
Education is the process of transmitting knowledge, skills, facts,
judgment etc. either formally or informally. It is the channel through
which human, physical, social, emotional and intellectual abilities are
harnessed. Education to Kneller (2000) is the process by which
individuals go through schools, colleges, universities and other
institutions of learning for transmission of values and knowledge.
Education in the submission of the 1st
black president of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, is the most potent
weapon to fight poverty, ignorance and provoke positive reforms in the
world. Quality education allows for acquisition of skills, technological
advancement and creates an avenue for the exploration of human
resources towards the attainment of economic development.
School environment is a concept that
goes beyond the physical location of a school; it covers the
teacher-student relationship, aesthetic structure of classrooms,
libraries, laboratories, quality of teachers, teaching methods, etc,
which are crucial in the process of teaching and learning. These
elements of school environment affect the academic performance of
students (Ajao, 2001). The extent to which student learning is propelled
is at the mercy of the location of the school compound, availability of
instructional materials and classroom structure. It has been
universally agreed among scholars that schools with conducive
environment for the activities of teaching and learning will produce
positive results of education that will speed up effective
teaching-learning synergy, education emancipation and the academic
performance of the students.
The physical features of a school have
strong influence on students’ performance and the attitude of their
teachers in assiduously discharging their duties. In a situation where a
school environment is faced with menace such as poor lighting, poor
ventilation system, dilapidated facilities, high noise level, high
discharge of toxic substances, high student-teacher ratio etc, the
process of teaching and learning will be difficult, which will
eventually produce poor academic performance of the students. (Ajayi,
2004). The combination of uncomfortable work place for teachers and poor
state of school facilities generates stress and job dissatisfaction
among teachers. In furtherance, it will also results in indolence and
demotivation among the students.
In addition to these, the structure of a
school environment influences the level of psychosocial development of
the students. The definition of “psychosocial” according to the American
Psychiatric Association (APA) is the combination of psychological and
social factors that determines the mental stability of an individual.
Social influence like peer pressure, religious belief, self-esteem,
family background, stress, hospitality, depression, hopelessness,
socialization, style of parental upbringing, family-child relationship
and interpersonal relationship helps to shape the personality and
psychological makeup of individuals. Students with psychosocial
deficiency will surely have difficulty to function in social events and
may have challenges in communicating effectively to others (Asoquo &
The alarming rate of woeful academic
performance among students in Nigeria has been of much concern to
teachers, parents, government and the students themselves. The quality
of education is not only dependent on the number and qualifications of
teachers, but on the location and coordination of school environment,
because the school environment is an essential area that should be
well-managed to attain higher student academic performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
All schools in Nigeria are situated at
various places by private individuals, government, corporate and
religious organizations. Thus, the process of teaching and learning
takes place under different environment.
Every school owns different kind of
facilities and classroom structures at varying efficiency level. All
students are expected to sit for the same examination at the final year
of either their junior or senior secondary school education (Junior
Secondary School Certificate Examination at junior level and Senior
School Certificate Examination at senior level). Uniform academic
performance is also expected to be achieved among the students since
they were taught with similar syllabus and curriculum.
In reality, some students in some
schools perform better than their counterparts in other schools. This
indicates there are peculiar determinants that influence the success or
failure of students in examinations. A particular example of such
determinants is the school environment. Students taught in a conducive
environment tend to perform better than their peers taught in an
uncomfortable environment. To this end, it is apt to examine the impact
of school environment on the academic performance of students and on
their psychosocial development.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to
examine the impact of school environment on students’ academic
performance and psychosocial development in Nigeria using a case study
of secondary students in Ikeja local government area of Lagos state.
The specific objectives of the study are:
- To ascertain the extent to which the quality of physical school environment affects students’ academic performance.
- To assess the extent to which school location affects students’ academic performance.
- To find out the extent to which school facilities and equipments affects students’ academic performance.
- To explore the extent to which school environment influences
students’ psychosocial development by considering factors like peer
pressure, self-esteem, depression and parenting style.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The questions of interest raised in study include:
- What is the impact of the physical school environment on students’ academic performance?
- What is the impact of school location on students’ academic performance?
- What is the impact of school facilities and equipments on students’ academic performance?
- What is the effect of school environment on students’ psychosocial development?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Four hypotheses relating to each research questions are developed in the study.
H0: There is no significant relationship between schools’ physical environment and students’ academic performance in Ikeja LGA.
H1: There is significant relationship between schools’ physical environment and students’ academic performance in Ikeja LGA.
H0: There is no significant relationship between schools’ location and students’ academic performance in Ikeja LGA.
H1: There is significant relationship between schools’ location and students’ academic performance in Ikeja LGA.
H0: There is no significant relationship between schools’ facilities and students’ academic performance in Ikeja LGA.
H1: There is significant relationship between schools’ facilities and students’ academic performance in Ikeja LGA.
H0: There is no significant relationship between schools’ environment and students’ psychosocial development in Ikeja LGA.
H1: There is significant relationship between schools’ environment and students’ psychosocial development in Ikeja LGA.
1.6 SIGNIFCANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings will be of substantial
benefits to students, parents, guardians, teachers, principals,
government and relevant stakeholders in the education sector.
The findings of the study will help
parents and guardians in determining the choice of the type of school
for their children and wards. This is because, the children will enjoy
good school learning environment that allows for quality school
The study informs teachers, headmasters
(mistresses) and principals about their readiness and strong-will to
improve school supervision and management methods to ensure quality
teaching and learning. It will help them appreciate the fact good school
facilities and equipment stimulates students’ academic performance. It
will also assist the teachers in the areas of their classroom delivery,
teaching effectiveness and increased productivity.
The results of the study will help the
government and policymakers to formulate effective planning policies and
programmes to foster schools’ academic activities. It will also provide
policymakers with knowledge to identify and solve the needs of the
schools in terms of building and facilities.
Lastly, it will aid researchers in their
future research undertakings in the aspect of school environment,
students’ academic performance and their psychosocial development.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study attempts to cover the impact
of school environment on students’ academic performance and psychosocial
development by prioritizing on secondary school students in Ikeja local
government area of Lagos state.
The limitations faced in the study are
time and financial constraint. The time given to conduct a study in
terms of its vast nature is relatively small, coupled with other
academic commitment of the researcher. Also, due to limited funds, the
study only covers one local government out of the 774 local government
areas in Nigeria.
Nevertheless, a robust and fact-finding research was carried out.
1.8 PLAN OF THE STUDY
The study is divided into five chapters.
Chapter one is the introductory aspect
of the study that consists of the general introduction, problem
statement, research objectives, questions and hypotheses that guides the
Chapter two contains the literature
review, by delving on the conceptual framework, theoretical review,
empirical review and gaps in literature.
Chapter three presents the research methodology adopted in the study.
Chapter four provides the presentation and discussion of results.
Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion, policy recommendation and suggestion for further studies.