1.1 Background of the Study
Educational activities are targeted at
ensuring students achieve the basic goals of educational objectives
which is encompassing the students good academic performance for greater
tomorrow of self, society and the nation at large.
Academic performance refers to the
degree to which a student achieves educational goals. Scott (2012) sees
academic performance as how well a student is accomplishing his or her
tasks and studies. There are no precise indicators for measuring
academic performance, but most of the times; the academic performance of
a student is measured by his grades in class assignment, tests and
examination. The issue of poor academic performance in Nigeria evidenced
by the failure rate of students in external examination like SSCE and
NECO is becoming alarming. Statistics from the West African Examination
Council revealed that between 2012 and 2014, 80.9% of candidates have 2
credits and above 70.3% have 3 credits and above. The report further
showed that 16.73% of candidates’ results were withheld because of
Several factors have been attributed as
causes of poor academic performance. Teachers’ non-adoption of verbal
reinforcement strategy, poor attitude of teachers to their job
lack of qualified and competent teachers
and poor style of teaching have been identified as possible causes of
poor academic performance(Arief, 2011). The causes of poor academic
performance could also be attributed to student-factors such as
inability of students to manage their time, poor preparation, inability
to withhold peer pressure and seriousness of students towards their
The extent to which the educational
objectives are achieved is determined by level of peer pressure
occurring around students amongst other factors. Peers play a vital role
in the social and emotional formation of students, especially at
adolescent stage. Peers influence starts from an early age and becomes
stronger at the teenage stages and adolescents. Hence it is normal,
natural and important for adolescents to have and rely on their friends
as they grow and develop.
A peer is anyone one look up to in
behaviour. It is equally someone who thinks is equal to one’s age, class
and ability (Hardcastle, 2002). On the other hand, pressure means the
influence on people to do certain things, which may at times be against
their wish. Peer pressure is the ability of people from same social
class or age to influence another of same age or class (Jones, 2010).
Peer pressure is equally the influences peers have on each other. Peer
pressure is also a force exert by people that is influenced by ideas,
values and behaviours either positively or negatively and always
associated with adolescents.
The term “peer pressure” is mostly
associated with teenagers or adolescents, but in reality, it is not
confined to teenagers alone (Areif, 2011). Peer pressure is common with
variants of adolescents’ risk taking such as delinquency, drug abuse,
sexual behaviours, and so on. Peer pressure can also have positive
effects when youths are influenced by their peers towards positive and
good behaviour such as volunteering for charity, challenge or motivate
peers to put up their academic performance
The negative influences of peer pressure
are generally perceived to be more prevalent in the society than the
positive influence of peer pressure (Arief, 2011). Peers can encourage
each other to skip classes, steal, cheat, use drugs, take alcohol and
cigarette. Majority of adolescents involved in risky behaviours is
greatly as a result of peer pressure. It may also lead to one’s
involvement in making the decision to have boy/girlfriends. Peer
pressure indulges youth to wander aimlessly around the streets, watching
films, attending night parties, taping as alternative to stealing which
may eventually degenerate to armed robbery. This behaviours undoubtedly
have effects on various aspects of student’s life.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The academic performance of Nigerian
secondary school students has been unremarkable over years evidenced by
the failure rate in public examinations. Parents, teacher, school
administrator, stakeholders and counsellors have expressed varying
concern on this ugly issue. These categories of people have identified
negative peer pressure as being responsible for students’ poor academic
performance. Negative Peer pressure is suspected for luring students to
engage in negative habits such as over-drinking of alcohol, smoking of
cigarette and marijuana, sexual related activities and other socially
unacceptable acts that distract them from their academic pursuit. These
maladaptive behaviours of adolescents which causes poor academic
performance raises the question, why the students are not concerned
about the current state on their academic performance in internal and
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to
examine the effects of peer pressure on the academic performance of
secondary school students in Ilishan Remo, Ogun State.
The study specifically aims:
- To examine the effects of positive peer pressure on the academic
performance of secondary school students in Ilishan Remo, Ogun State.
- To examine the effects of negative peer pressure on the academic
performance of secondary school students in Ilishan Remo, Ogun State.
- To ascertain the peer pressure influence on the students’ academic performance based on age and gender.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
Three hypotheses are formulated to guide
the study in order to arrive at a valid conclusion. The hypotheses are
stated as follows:
- H01: Negative peer pressure has no significant effect on
the academic performance of secondary school students in Ilishan Remo,
- Ha1:There is no significant peer pressure influence on the students’ academic performance based on age and gender.
1.5 Research questions
1. What level of peer pressure have Ikenne Local Government school students?
2. What is the academic performance status of ikenne local government school students?
1.6 Significance of Study
The findings of the study will be of
substantial benefits to parents and guardians, teachers and school
administrators, counsellors, society and the students themselves.
The study will help parents and
guardians on how well to train and bring their child to enable them not
to be vulnerable to the negative influences of peer pressure. The study
will help counsellor to know the right technique to adopt in modifying
negative peer pressure. It will also help them to create discipline in
the life of students.
The teachers will equally benefits from
this study as it will help them what is expected from them in terms of
morality, sanity and good ethical behaviours, as the students sees them
as role-models. The study will help schools to produce disciplined
students who will be useful to the nation because experience has showed
that disciplined students perform academically and better than the
The study will inform the students to
know the inherent gains behind positive peer pressure and the inherent
disaster behind negative peer pressure as it relates to their academic
performance. The study will help the society by organizing conferences,
seminars, symposiums, workshops to inform them about the effects of
positive and negative peer pressure. Finally, This study will equally
be helpful to future researchers as it will serve as a source of
research material for them.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
This is limited to senior secondary
school students because they are believed to have experienced the good
and bad sides of peer pressure
1.8 Definition of Terms
degree to which a student achieves the objectives of educational
outcomes. It is also the extent of a student’s performance in classroom
activities, internal and public examinations.
Peer Pressure- A force
exerts by people that is influenced by ones values and behaviours either
positively or negatively and always associated with adolescents.