1.1 Background of the study
security, in its extensive sense, covers far more than the absence of violent conflict.
It comprises human rights, good governance, access to education and health care
and making each individual has opportunities and choices to fulfill his or her
potential. Human security, human right, etc reduces poverty and also helps in achieving
economic growth and prevents conflict. Freedom from want, freedom from fear,
and the freedom of future generations to inherit a healthy natural environment
these are the interrelated building blocks of human security and therefore
Threats to human security could be political
and military, social, economic or environmental. A broad array of factors
contribute to making people feel insecure, from the laying of landmines and the
proliferation of small arms, to transnational threats such as drugs trafficking,
to the spread of HIV. One of the main factors of human insecurity is precisely
the lack of effective political and security mechanisms to address conflicts. Human
security can be said to have two main aspects. It means, first, safety from
such dangerous threats as hunger, disease and repression. And second, it means
protection from sudden and hurtful disruptions in the patterns of daily life
whether in homes, in jobs or in communities. These threats can exist at all
levels of national income and development. Economic security, food security,
health security, environmental security, personal security, community security,
political securities are lists of some threats to human security.
issue of human displacement in Africa is broad and possibly growing rapidly. A
great deal of qualitative evidence suggests that the situation of Africa’s displaced people is
becoming increasingly problematic and that those who succeed in escaping from
their country are unable to find a safe refugee in other states. With the
increase in armed conflicts in Africa and the West Africa Sub-Region there
exist various dimensions of environmental, social and security challenges posed
by refugee influx into most countries of Africa. Refugees tend to impact on the
safety of various nation states. Recent work confirms the instinct that
political violence and persecution are significant determinants of flight. Yet,
refugees are not simply the unfortunate by-products of war, but may serve as
catalysts for conflicts, including conflict between states. Scholars have
suggested that refugee migration can provoke international hostilities between
states, including military action although this claim has not been rigorously
tested. For instance, it is argued that Rwanda invasion of Zaire in 1996 was
largely motivated by the desire to clear refugee camps that harbored militant
factions. Refugee crises do not only bring about humanitarian disasters but
also create serious implications for Border States and host communities.
According to Bobbin, and Garrett (2006), the terms internal or domestic and
civil conflict imply violent interactions between states and dissidents, and
the negative consequences of war and human rights violations, contained within
of the problem
crises do not only bring about humanitarian disasters but also create serious
implications for Border States and host communities and West Africa. Refugees
most times pose a security threat to the host country. According to Bobbin, and
Garrett (2006), the terms internal or domestic and civil conflict imply violent
interactions between states and dissidents, and the negative consequences of
war and human rights violations, contained within the states. Rather than
treating states as independent units, it may be more appropriate to view them
interconnected in dense networks of social interactions where process within
one state have significant repercussions for other states in the region and
elsewhere. The human costs of civil war and state persecution may not be
entirely borne by the warring country only, but may create significant
externalities, or spillover effects, for other countries/communities. The
problems associated with refugees may not be restricted to a particular border
area but may have spillover effects on the internal security situation of a
region. As posited by Ogundele (2005), refugee migration can inflict a
significant economic burden on host countries or communities. This may be so
not minding the availability of international aid, which at time may be from
the world’s poorest nation who may often
bear much of the cost of maintaining them. Refugees are also less likely to
contribute to productive economic activity in their hosts
1.3 Objectives of the study
study seeks to examine the impact of refugee crisis on human security in West
To examine the dynamics of the socio-Political and economic implications that is
associated with refugees‟ security phenomenon,
within the African continent.
To find out the problems associated with refugees in West Africa.
To unravel the implication of refugee on Africa’s
social, political, security and economic development.
4. To enable lessons learned from national, regional and
international human security experiences to be shared.
1. What are the problems
associated with refugees in West Africa?
is the implication of refugee on Africa’s
social, political, security and economic development?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: There is no impact of refugee
crisis on human security in West Africa
Hi: There is impact of refugee crisis on human
security in West Africa
1.6 Significance of the study
study would at the end serve as an early warning indicator to government in its
drive at maintaining peace and security of the country’s
internal and border securities.
1.7 Scope/Limitations of the study
study centers on the impact of refugee crisis on human security in West Africa.
Limitations of study
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the
efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature
or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously
engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down
on the time devoted for the research work.
Refugee:a person who has been forced to leave
there country or home because there is a war or for political, religious or
Crisis:a time of danger, difficulty or
confusion when problems must be solved or important decision must be made.
Human security:is an emerging paradigm for understanding
global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional
notion of national
security by arguing that
the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the
Security:the activities involved in protecting a
country, building or person against attack, danger, etc.
right:one of the
basic rights that everyone has to be created fairly and not in a cruel way,
especially by their government.