1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
government in Nigeria could have been said to have started when politicians
assumed leadership role of regional legislators under colonial reforms. That
gradually led to regional self-government in the early 1950s. Before this,
under the native system, indirect rule was introduced. Indirect rule sought to
rule the local people through their local chiefs. (Abia, B.E 2003:5)
Nigeria’s rural area have for many decades remained
backward and static, especially at a time when global economy is experiencing
tremendous change. This is more evidence after the country’s civil war
(1967-70) featuring others. Upsurge petroleum revenue, the consequent ability
of government to finance large construction prove of in urban centre, as well
as unprecedented migration of able bodied youth from rural urban center, all
combine to force a decline in rural area development (Tomiro, 1995:12).
of creating local government any where in the world stems form the need to
facilitate development of the grassroots. Local government councils are
constantly structuring to improve the effectiveness and efficiency service
delivery. Most especially, in the area of health care and education services,
local government in Nigeria are striving to ensure that priorities are not
misplaced in this country Nigeria in the provision of service delivery to their
rural area or rural dwellers (Ajayi, 2000:70)
government in its real sense, is very vital in the socio-economy polity of
Nigeria, this is so because it is the nearest form of government to the common
man in the observed rural settings everywhere. However, not every or much has
been achieved by the way of development of rural area. Largely due to lack of
focus administration of local government councils, if any are is in doubt of
this assertion, then such a person perhaps may not have paused to ask for
reason why almost rural villages lack good roads, electricity, school, health
care centers and social amenities in which Mopa-Moro local government is not
left out. What happen to all the resources been allocated to these local
rural development of rural dwellers has been concerned of every responsive and
responsible local government. Development remains insignificant if development
does not positively affect the lives of people in the society (Lawal, 2000:46)
past administration has recognize the important of rural areas in the general
development strategies in the country. Hence, various programmes have designed
and operated and relevant institutions have been established to promote the
rural development. One of the paramount programme designed to achieve this aims
in 1976 local government reforms by Murtala administration of General Murtala
and General Olusegun Obasanjo.
government are expected to carry out regional policies with respect to
ameliorate poverty, unemployment etc in the 21st century you may wish to
imagine that living in most rural Nigeria is traumatic, if you care to observe,
you will see men and women, boys and girls pursuing menial activity or task
just to survive. Local government has undergone very numerous and constant
reforms aimed at evolving a viable system that could serve the purpose of which
local government is created. In essence, local government should be a machinery
for rural development and transformation, but research findings and empirical
evidence have shown that most local government activities have not adequate
mobilized the people for rural development activities (Ijere, 2000:16).
year 1976 was never a product of many years of socio-economic and political
changes. It further makes a water-shed when the whole country acquired a
uniform provision in its local government system. Hence, policies and
strategies are made for implementation as a means to an end. Therefore, local
government administration should be a strategy for socio-economic and political
development form below show that all resources at the disposed of the country
can be effectively and efficiency tapped to achieved and accelerate basic
needs. It is through this system that basic and necessary facilities are
provided which are geared towards improving and changing living conditions in
the rural areas. In fact, majority of the population are left disorganized
local government is a form of devolution of power of state. It is the
government of the grass root which is designed to set up as an instrument to
rural development or transformation. Form ideological perspective, local
government foster the principle of democracy as local government brings
government nearer to the people and if properly designed it goes to mass
participation of people in the process of government.
local government is designed to achieve its goals, that is, multi-dimensional
goals of economic, social and political development. For local government to
achieve it goals, it should be appropriate organized/structured, adequately
funded and sufficiently staffed with well qualified and consciously trained and
motivated, competent and educated personnel.
local government in Nigeria started when her politician assumed leadership of
regional legislative under colonial reforms that’s led to regional self
government in the 1950. The instituted reform that gradually transformed local
government authority from traditional rulers to elected representatives in the
process, they created vacuum and space for political participation for local
elites especially western educated elites who hither to played little or no
role in local governance (Egi J. 1997:45)
addition to this, local governments in Nigeria have undergone very numerous and
constant reforms aimed at evolving a viable system that could suit the purpose
of which local government is created. Before the advent of colonial
administration various traditional political communities in Nigeria were
governed through the instrumentalities of their traditional political
institution. In the Northern part of Nigeria, the Hausa/Fulani operated as
highly centralized hierarch leally organized authoritarian large Feale state
and were ruled by powerful Emirs. The Yoruba of the western Nigeria had
centralized freedom in which the Oba’s who played constitutional role. In
Eastern Nigeria, the Igbo have fragmented and diffused autonomous local
government of which Ozo title association, the council of elders shared in
political authority with the Chief of the community.
the light of this, local government should be a machinery tools for rural
development, but research finding and empirical evidence seems to have shown
that, most local government have not adequately mobilized the people for rural
development activities. Consequently, this study will like to stress out the
impact of local government on rural development and the way forward.
Similarly, the expediency of local government
everywhere in the world stems form the need to facilitate development at the grassroots.
The important of local government is a function of its ability to generate
sense of belonging, safety and satisfaction among its populace. All forms of
government regimes or political systems for ensuring national administration
development and political efficiency are found in the concept and practice of
local government. Whatever is the mode of government, integration,
administration and development (Okoli O. 1998:31).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
argument for giving increased attention to the problem of rural areas is
pioneer and widely acceptable by scholars. It has become a tremendous and
pretentious phenomenon in Mopa-Muro local government, since the government was
expected to serve as effective instrument of rural development.
the level of effectiveness of local government in rural development would be
affected try the following variables, finance, inadequacy of skilled workers,
problems of participation and involvement.
people in the rural live on miserable low income; as a result, their standard
of living is very poor. Apart form this, they do not have access to social
amenities and other basic necessity of life such as water, electricity, roads,
health care services etc.
of the problem of Mopa-Muro local government can said to be the rush with which
rural programmes are been implemented in the country. The rural communities
view need and priorities are not always reflected in policies and programmes
meant for rural development.
a low level of participation by the poor, even through the ultimate
shareholders in the rural development efforts are the rural poor, all often
they are derived a voice in the formulation, implementation and management of
rural development programmes.
most rural development programmes have had a single vector or intension and
have failed to confront the multi-dimensionality of rural areas in Nigeria.
absent of thorough knowledge of local system and the needs or rural people as
well as grass root action research and service programme designed primarily to
test how to plan and implement rural development programmes within the
co-operation of recipient often made governments rural development efforts to
Fifthly, the lack of political will and stability, there
has been no continuity in rural development efforts in Nigeria state since
independence. Each successive regime introduced its rural development
programmes. Such programmes ends with the termination of the regime introduced
addition, the rural areas are lacking so many things among which are good
roads, good educations, good water supply and good health care system etc.
these problems lootings about rural-urban drift which had created a myriad of
socio-economy problems for both rural and urban centers. As a result of
rural-urban migration, rural areas have been deprived of human resources,
engage mostly in the agricultural sector, and have the low level of
productivity. The aftermath of this scenario includes housing problems in
cities, unemployment and increase in crime rate.
inadequacy of skilled workers is another major obstacle confronting much local
government, same form few local council in Lagos state and perhaps, some
Southern states, local government generally has experiencing death of skilled,
technical and professional staff like qualified Engineers, medical Doctors,
Accountants, Town planners, to mention but a few.
the same vein, problem of participation and involvement is another obstacle of
local government. For the past decades, more euphemistic phrases have been
employed to justify people’s participations at the grass roots. They includes:
“Development from below”, Bottom-up approach to the development”, popular
participation”, bringing government closer to the people’s etc. train all
indication and corrections, research and physical observation have shown that
there has been more hue and cry than action.
misplaced priority poses another problem. Hardened and limited resources
accrued to and raised by local government are always mismanaged. Priorities are
misplaced, projects are done not accordingly or as demanded by the people but
regrettably in line with selfish and agreement of the political leadership in
collaboration with the senior bureaucratic at the local government level of
degree of external influence and intrusion in local government affairs by
higher level of government is worrisome and needs to re-valuation. Situation
where the state governor unconstitutionally dissolved the entire elected
councils officers without proper investigation on spurious allegation is not
good for the future of the local government administration in the country.
All these forgoing issues have prompted this
research work and it intends to shed
more light on problems of local government by attempting answer some question
associated with these questions below:-
Mopa-Muro local government contributed to the development of her rural areas?
Mopa-Muro local government area been able to utilize her monthly allocation for
there some positive or negative effect of Mopa-Muro local government in the
development of rural area?
d. How as
Mopa-Muro local government affected rural development?
all the programmes designed to improve rural areas, such as epoch-making,
Directorate for Food, Road and Infrastructural (DFFRI), River Basin and Rural
Development Authorities (RBADAS), Agricultural Development Project (ADP), the
school to land programmes, Better Life Programme for Rural Women (BRP), and the
family support programmes to mention a few. The rural dwellers still complain
of low per-capital income, lack of basic roads, pipe-borne water, electricity,
health care centers, etc.
has necessitated this research to access the role of the local government in
rural development in Nigeria with specific attention to Mopa-Muro local
government of Kogi State.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
overall aims and objectives of this study is to evaluate the performance or
roles and effort of Mopa-Muro local government area in rural development
specifically. The objectives of the study are as follows:-
find out the extent to which Mopa-Muro local government areas is identifying
with the rural development of the rural areas.
examine the extent to which the general objectives of the rural development has
been attained in Mopa-Muro local government area
find out major achievement and implement facing development aspiration of
Mopa-Muro local government area.
ascertain whether sufficient funds have been made available to Mopa-Muro local
government area or not.
explore and recommend appropriate alternative line of actions that will revive
and sustain the rate of Mopa-Muro local government in rural development.
develop pro-efficiency in systematically examining rural development problems
identity the critical area of concerns in the field addressing issues of rural
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
government is located in energy nook and cranny of the state. The scope of this
study is basically limited to Mopa-Muro local government area in Kogi State.
this study, there are lot of difficulties were encounter. In the first place,
these were difficulties in searching for available data as a result of poor
record keeping of the local government administrators and most of the data were
not published as to find in our libraries.
As a result of these, this work can be said to
basically limited to Mopa-Muro local government area of Kogi State. In which
the study covers 1999 to date which mark Nigeria fourth Republic.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
One of the basic reasons of this study is the desire
to contribute to the ongoing clamoring of more viable and workable rural
settings development in Nigeria
so, the product of this study will be very useful in the area for
policy/decision makers, scholars and the society organization on how best to
organized and promote grassroot development.
study well assist local government administrators to know the problem faced by
the local government which would assist greatly checking their lapses of
previous administrator and as a results, it will assist greatly in the
provision of essential that Nigeria can be said to be interested in
establishing strong local government that are capable of achieving the triple
objectives of promoting political participation, delivering efficient service
and mobilizing local resources. The reason is not that far-fetched because the
population of the country (Nigeria) is more of the grassroots.
but not the least, has study will also serve as a contribution to ensuring
literature on local government and rural development in Nigeria.
1.6. RESEARCH STATEMENT
Is it true that many people in the
rural live on miserable low income; as a result, their standard of living is
very poor, do not have access to social amenities and other basic necessity of
life such as water, electricity, roads, health care services etc.
Can local government problem said to be to be as a
result of the rush with which rural programmes are been implemented in the
country. The rural communities view need and priorities are not always
reflected in policies and programmes meant for rural development.
low level of participation by the poor, even through the ultimate shareholders
in the rural development efforts are the rural poor, and all often they are
derived a voice in the formulation, implementation and management of rural
sure that, most rural development programmes have had a single vector or
intension and have failed to confront the multi-dimensionality of rural areas
1.7. RESEACH METHODOLOGY
any research or finding these are two method of gathering data and they are
categorized into two in which are primary and secondary method of data
sources: deals with the raw data which includes the administration of questionnaire,
interview, focus group discussion etc. while
source:- This source consist of readily available compendia and already
compelled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by
researcher for their studies, e.g. Reports to government department, sample
survey f organization reports of trade association, purification of
international organization such as UNO, IMF, World Bank, Financial Journals,
for the purpose of the study, secondary method of data collection was used. The
data analysis was based on qualitative method that is, information was gathered
form secondary source were analyzed through content analysis.
1.8. DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. LOCAL GOVERNMENT
According to Remi A. (2008:3-7), local
government is a political division of nation (or in a federal system, a state)
which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs,
including the power to impose taxes or exact labour for prescribes or otherwise
Concise Dictionary of politics (2009:312) define local government as a
governing institution which has authority over a sub-national territorially
defined area, in federal systems a sub-state territorially defined area.
2. RURAL DEVELOPMENT
development in accordance to Ayodele (2002:15), is a strategy which is designed
to bring about an improvement in the social and economic life of the rural
Ekong E. (2003:356) defines rural development as a vital in the general process
of rural development. It entrances prompt delivery of inputs to farmers and
evacuation of farms produce to market. He also defines rural development as a
process of which a set of technical, social-economic condition in order to achieve
harmony and balance both on the regional and national levels (Ekong 2003:361).
3. INTEGRATED RURAL DEVELOPMENT
(1988) in Ayodele (2002:1.6) defines it as a new and complex organization
innovation in which aims to serve target population through multi-agency
efforts and in which heterogeneous technologies several sources and collective
initiatives are required to attain its broad goals.
1.9. ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY
research work is organized into five (5) chapters. The first chapter focuses on
the background to the study, statement of the problems, objectives of the
study, scope and limitation of the study, significance of the study research
question, and research methodology definition of the terms and finally
terminates with organization of the study.
chapter two dwells on the conception and theoretical framework, local
government, purpose of local government, role of local government to rural
development, area of which ideal government facilitate rural development, functions
of local government, Local Autonomy, Development, purpose of Development, Rural
Development, Nature of Rural Development, Integrated Rural Development,
features of Integrated Rural Development, Nexus between Local Government and
framework which is comprises of Development school Approach, Human Development
Approach and Localist Theory.
chapter three (3) concentrates on the historical background of Mopa-Muro local
government area, geographical location, physical features of Mopa-muro local
government, occupation and language of the people, number of districts that
form the local government area, organizational structure of Mopa-muro local
government area and how Mopa-muro local government has helped in the
development of her community members
chapter four focuses on the functional task of local government institution in
Nigeria, problematical issues in the local administration of local government
in Nigeria and evaluation of findings.
chapter five (5) comprises of summary, conclusion and recommendation.
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Local Government Administration in
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