The study examined the impact of inter-governmental relations in local governments in Nigeria.
More specifically, the study sought to
assess the inter-governmental relationship and Local Government
Administration in Nigeria.
Population was drew from Lagos Island Local Government Headquarters, which involved all the departments of the Local Government.
Yaro Yamane formula was used to
determine the sample size, which consist of 229 staff, while the simple
statistical method of frequencies and percentage were applied.
The data used for this study were
collected through two main sources, namely; Primary and Secondary
sources of data, 229 respondents duly participated in the survey and a
well- developed questionnaire was designed to elicit information from
Result from the study indicated that the
impact inter-governmental relations have on local Government is mostly
negative thereby affecting the process of local government affairs.
Also the local government due to the
power given to it through the constitution, has its own autonomy share
of resource distribution which helps it develop rapidly.
Base on this, the study advised that all
the levels of government should be part and parcel of policy
formulation relating to the issues at hand, furthermore considering the
fact that they are the third tier of government, the government should
distribute resources to them in order to help them develop and be
independently in their own, and lastly Resources sharing must address
the necessity for rapid development at the grassroots levels.
Inter-governmental relations refer to
the structures and processes which exist in a decentralized system of
government for the coordination of the activities of the various levels
of government as they perform their constitutionally-assigned roles
inter-governmental relations encompasses all the permutations and
combinations of relations among the units of government in a federal
system, it comprises the activities and attitudes of persons occupying
positions in all the units of government under consideration: Federal,
State, Local as well as in the judicial, legislative or executive
branches of government as they relate with each other Inter-governmental
relations includes conceited and regularized actions of officials as
well as the one-time occasional occurrences such as new statutes and
landmark court decisions in their interrelationship. In fact, it is
inter-government relations, which makes a federal entity a system of
government. Otherwise, the federation becomes just a collection of
independent entities. As a result of the relationship between levels of
government in from the principle of division of powers in such way that
no level of government is subordinate to the other on matters
constitutionally allocated to it, but also from a realistic conception
of federalism as a total system of imperfectly shared responsibility.
1.2 Background of the Study
Since all governments within the federal
system serve the same people, the sharing of powers provides a
compelling imperative for intergovernmental cooperative transactions.
In contemporary federal political
systems, intergovernmental relations flow vertically and horizontally in
five separate and different channels, namely:
Federal—State; Federal—Local; State—State; State—Local and Local—Local
In the Nigerian federation, the
horizontal relations among states and among local governments remain
underdeveloped, while the channels for inter-governmental federal state
and even federal local relations are better developed, notwithstanding
the increasing trend for meetings between states on geo-political basis
and the periodic meeting of local government officials.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
To appreciate the depth of crisis in the
Federal system in Nigeria, one has to follow the recent trend of the
raging controversy between the Federal and State Governments over the
exercise of power or control of revenue resources of local government on
how not to have assumed the undue Prominence given to it as a
constitutional question if Nigerian Leaders, particularly the Federal
level had adhered strictly to the norms of federalism and followed the
precedents established by the past democratic governments in Nigerian
In Nigeria, the issue of sharing
resources among the three levels of government has remained
controversial due to lack of acceptable formula. It generates tension
and bad blood among the three tiers of government. This has resulted in
setting up of different committees or commissions to prescribe the
formula to be used. Also there exists a conflict between the Federal,
State and Local government over acceptable formula for sharing revenue.
For instance, the conflict is usually
whether the principle of derivation, need, natural interest or landmass
should be used as a basis for the purpose. Even when these principles
may be generally accepted as the main basis for working out revenue
allocation formula, conflict might arise following as to which of the
principles takes precedence over others as the main criteria for sharing
This is the problem of tax jurisdiction,
which refers to the problem of which aspect of government should
collect what revenue over a particular area. These have been serious
problems between the Federal, State and Local Governments. Their share
of tax revenue seriously affects local governments. They are the lowest
level of government. Likewise they collect the least amount of tax
revenue, which makes them still stagnant.
Another problem is the existence of
control of one level of government by another in any aspect (Abonyi,
2005). Local governments are dominated by the Federal and State
governments. They do not have their own autonomy, making them too
dependent on the other levels of governments. Mention must be made of
the problem of finding the best method of channeling revenue from one
level of government to another especially from the Federal to the Local
Government. (Ugwu, 1998: 90).
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is
Impact of Inter-governmental Relations on Local Government
Administration in Nigeria, with particular reference to Lagos Island
Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Other objectives of the study include;
- To determine the relevance of inter-governmental relations in Nigeria
- To determine the main sources of conflict among the various levels of government in inter-governmental relations in Nigeria.
- To recommend solutions to inter-jurisdictional conflict among the various levels of government.
- To recommend measures required for an improved inter-governmental relations in Nigeria.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will be of great benefit to
Lagos Island Local Government Area of Lagos State. This is because it
will be exposed to the challenges it is facing in inter-government
It would also be of great significance
to researchers by way of making them aware of problems that have been
uncovered by these researchers, so that they would know where to start
from in their subsequent research work in the area of inter-governmental
relations in Nigeria.
The study would be significant to policy
makers and policy implementers, as they would make use of the findings
and recommendations of this study.
1.6 Research Questions
- Did the constitution make any provision for intergovernmental relations in Nigeria?
- What are the areas of intergovernmental relations in Nigeria?
- What is the relevance of intergovernmental relations in local government in Nigeria?
- What are the causes of conflicts between the levels of government in Nigeria?
- What effects has intergovernmental relations had in Local Government Administration?
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is in the Impact of
Intergovernmental Relations in Local Government Administration in
Nigeria. But due to the fact that there are many local governments in
Nigeria, the researcher decided to center the research in Lagos Island
Local Government Area of Lagos State as the case study.
1.8 Definition of Terms
In the course of this research work,
some concepts were used and for easy and comprehensive understanding of
the entire work, these concept shave been explained.
- LOCAL GOVERNMENT: This is the third tier of government within the
State and is charged with the responsibility and administration of the
people at the grass-root. It is also a government established at the
local level through an Act of Parliament to deal with specific matters
as it affects the local people.
- CENTRAL GOVERNMENT: This is not only the first but the
mega-government which exercise exclusive powers and its superior to both
the State and Local Governments.
- GOVERNMENT: This is the agency of the ruling class which is charged
with the responsibility of exercising the state powers on behalf of the
- OBJECTIVES: This is the end-result to which an organization or
government’s activity is to be directed. Objectives are hierarchical in
nature and are determined or formulated after economic social and
political forces affecting the organization have been appraised.
- DEVELOPMENT: It is the qualitative and qualities, self-improvement
of man that applies to whole societies and people. It means the removal
of obstacles to the progressive or qualitative transformation of man
and such obstacles include hunger, poverty, ignorance, disease,
mal-nutrition, unemployment, to mention but a few.
- ADMINISTRATION: Administration is determined action taken in pursuit
of conscious purpose. It is the systematic ordering of affairs and the
calculated use of resources, aimed at making those things happen which
we want to happen and simultaneously preventing developments that fail
to square with our intentions. It is the marshaling of available labour
and materials in order to gain that which is desired at the lowest cost
in energy, time and money.
- INTER-GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS: The interactions that exist among various levels/tiers of government within a state.