study investigated and analyzed the HIV risk practices amongst women of
child-bearing age in Owan East Local Government Area of Edo State.
A sample of 356 child-bearing women
were randomly selected from the target population using the multistage
(cluster) sampling technique. A 15-item
close-ended multiple choice questionnaire was designed by the researcher for
The findings revealed that Owan East
Women of child-bearing age engage in HIV risk practices and that level of
education has a significant influence on the HIV risk practices amongst Owan
East women of child-bearing area. The
study further showed that the women do not use condom and some indulge in sex
for material reward. It was concluded
that efforts should be made to provide health education to women on healthy
sexual behaviour: the benefits of condom use and the need to indulge in safe
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Purpose of the Study 5
Significance of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Scope of Study (Delimitation) 7
Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF
Identification of Aids: Causative
Agent, Signs/Symptoms 10
Modes of Transmission cum Risk
National Sero-Prevalence (Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
In Nigeria) 15
Factors Responsible for the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS
Amongst Women 19
Cultural Practices Promoting HIV Infection 24
Summary of Related Literature 51
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD OF THE STUDY
Research Design 54
Sample and Sampling Technique 54
Method of Data Collection 56
Method of Data Analysis 57
DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND DISUCSSION
OF RESULTS 58
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Appendix (Questionnaire) 81
Background to the Study
This project work focuses on an
analysis of HIV risk practices amongst Owan East women of child-bearing
age. Owan East L.G.A. is in Edo North
HIV (human immuno deficiency virus) as
defined by the Oxford Concise Reference Dictionary of Biology is the retrovirus
that causes AIDS in humans. It has a
specific affinity for the helper T cells of its host. The membrane envelope glycoproteins encasing
the virus show great variability in their amino-acid sequences, hence the
difficulty of preparing an effective AIDS vaccine.
The emergence of the Acquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) on the global scene has been a major source of
concern worldwide. It is now a pandemic
disease globally. As at December, 1994,
one million, twenty-three thousand and seventy- three (1,023073) cumulative
AIDS cases in both adults and children, were reported, which represented a 20%
increase since January, 1994 (WHO, 2005).
The situation in Nigeria is not
different from this global trend. When
it was first reported in 1986, the number of HIV positive and reported cases
has been on the increase. A film on the
actual victims titled: “The Dawn of Reality”, has been produced. The fact that many tens of thousands might be
carrying the AIDS virus without full manifestation yet is another dimension to
this pandemic disease. The situation may
be a little more frightening when the WHO’s projection of 30 – 40 million
carrying HIV infection by the year 2000 is considered. A close analysis of the cases reported shows
that almost all groups in the society are affected (Inem et al, 2002). AIDS, therefore knows no class.
On the other hand, sexual transmission
has been widely reported as the singular most important mode of transmission,
especially amongst the sexually active and economically productive age bracket
of 15 – 49 years, of both gender (FMHSS, 2006).
However, the youths who are more sexually active are more susceptible to
the disease, since casual and multiple
partners’ sexual habit is one of the major causes. The modes of transmission of all sexual
transmitted diseases (STDs) is through close contacts and sexual intercourse
while AIDS is both through sexual intercourse, blood/blood product transfusion
and from mother to the infant (NDHS, 2007).
Since AIDS is a life-long disease that will ultimately lead to death,
since there is no known cure yet and no vaccine for prevention, all efforts to
contain the disease center around education for behavioural change. The entire population of a country,
therefore, has to be segmented and properly targeted for AIDS Education and information
Statement of the Problem
It has been discovered that close
contact such as unhealthy sexual behaviours constitute the highest risk factor
causing HIV infection. Inspite of this
most people are yet to change their high risk lifestyles. Consequently, the primary aim of this study
seeks to determine HIV risk practices amongst women of child-bearing age in
Owan East Local Government Area of Edo State.
An analysis of HIV risk practices becomes very important as it provides
the early signals and warnings of a serious population problem, which might
translate in reduced productivity in the country. Since HIV/AIDS is a life-long disease that
will ultimately lead to death, since there is no known cure yet and no vaccine,
all efforts to contain the disease centre around education for behavioural
Purpose of the Study
This study seeks to investigate and
analyze the HIV risk practices amongst women of child-bearing age in Owan East
Local Government Area of Edo State, and to thereby promote behaviours that
prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS.
Significance of the Study
An analysis of HIV risk practices
amongst women of child-bearing age in Owan East Local Government Area will
enable the entire population of Nigeria to be segmented and properly targeted
for HIV/AIDS Education and information; for raising the level of understanding
on the nature and modes of HIV/AIDS; developing the right attitudes that will
assist individuals to reject biased information/myths relating to HIV/AIDS
infection; developing responsible decision-making behaviour that will protect
women of child-bearing age and others from HIV/AIDS; and developing in the
youths the necessary skills for healthy human relationship.
In order to justify an analysis of HIV
risk practices amongst women of child-bearing age in this local government, the
following questions were raised for the study:
Has Owan East women of child-bearing age
significantly exhibited HIV risk practices?
Is there a significant difference between Owan
women of child-bearing age who are indulging in unprotected sex and those who
are not indulging in it?
Has level of education any influence on HIV risk
practices amongst women of child-bearing age in Owan East L.G.A.?
In an attempt to provide
answers to the foregoing questions, the following hypotheses were tested in the
Owan East women of child-bearing
age have not significantly exhibited HIV risk practices.
Ho2 There is no significant difference
between Owan women of child-bearing age who indulge in unprotected sex and
those who did not indulge in it.
Ho3 Level of education has no significant
influence on HIV risk practices amongst Owan East women of childbearing age.
Scope of Study
Due to financial constraint and time
factor, this study was restricted to a sample of some selected 356 women of
child-bearing age from the target population.
Definition of Terms
- (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) A disease of humans characterized by
defective cell-mediated immunity and increased susceptibility to infections.
Glycoproteins: - A protein with an admixture of glycogen.
HIV – (Human
Immuno-deficiency Virus) The retrovirus that causes AIDS in humans.
Practices - Practices and behaviours
and lifestyles which predisposes one to HIV infection.
Retrovirus - An
ribonucleic and (RNA) – containing virus that converts its RNA into
Dioxiribinucleic acid (DNA) by means of the enzyme reverse transcriptase,
enabling it to become integrated into its host’s DNA.
Sexually transmitted diseases.