Cysticercosis remains as
important health problem in developing countries. Its transmission is
related to soil contamination with human faces. This parasitosis is
found in African, Asian and Latin America, where the greatest incidences
are seen in mexico and brazil.
Human cysticercosis is acquired from the ingestion of ova of T. solium,
excreted by human carries in their faces, followed by the development
of cyst in human tissue. The risk of contamination with taenia ova is
related to the contact with T. solium carriers. Recently, it has been shown that in humans, the most common route of infection is ingestion of T. solium
eggs from contaminated food or water. In United States of American and
Europe, the frequency of cysticercosis is increasing due to increasing
immigration and more frequent travels to endemic regions. The infected
individual becomes a carrier and source of infections by oral fecal
According to the world health
organization (WHO), more than 2million people harbor the adult tapeworm
and many more are infected with cysticerci (Garcia and Del brutto,
2000). These authors also indicated that neurocysticercosis is an
important public health problem as it affects people of productive ages
and causes an estimated 50,000 deaths every years and many times that
number of patients are left with irreversible brain damage.
The disease also causes
important economic losses in countries where it is endemic; more than
60millions dollars per year in Mexico only for contamination of
parasitized carcasses (Fluzeby 1998). According to Zoli, et al.,
(2003), economic estimates indicate that the annuals losses due to
porcine cysticercosis in 10 west and central African countries amount to
about 25millions euros, among which 2million for Nigeria. Infected pigs
and carcasses are sold cheaper in unofficial meat distribution channels
in order to avoid losses from the contamination of infected carcasses
(Pawlowski, 1990; Tsang and Wilson, 1995).
The cost of this parasitosis
for humans is very high (treatment, hospitalization, loss of work days).
In 1992, it was estimated at 195 million dollars in USA and 3700
dollars per cases in Mexico (Fluzeby, 1998). In addition, it also
reduces the availability of proteins to human as a result of carcass
contamination. The human population that is most exposed to the disease
are those living in rural areas where sanitary condition are not the
best. Djou (2001) quoted by Shey-njila, et al., (2003) reported
that the cost of diagnosis, hospitalization and treatment of a human
cysticercosis case in Cameroon is 170,000CFA (which is beyond the reach
of most rural population.
The rapid expansion of pig
farming and pork consumption is raising concern in Nigeria, as it is
bound to exacerbate the problems related to T. solium
cysticercosis, not only in rural areas where most pig are left, but also
in urban areas where infected pork can be consumed and human carries
of the parasite can infect other people. Prevalence of human taeniasis
has been reported in Nigeria at 8.6% (Onah, and Chiejina 1995) with 3.7%
associated with epilepsy (Asana and Brandt, 2003). Although the
recognition of its status as a serious and emerging threat to public
health is increasing, the incidence data in humans are very limited
owning to a lack of adequate surveillance, monitoring and reporting
systems; consequently, epidemiological information is not extensive.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Pig farming and pork consumption
has gained popularity in the study areas. Most of these activities
(farming and consumption) are done openly. Poverty, poor sanitation and
contamination with T. solium eggs from tapeworm carries,
however autoinfection as a result of the entry of eggs into the stomach
due to etroperistalsis or as a result of accidental ingestion of eggs
from the hosts own faeces due to contaminated hands is also possible.
Most worrying is the fact
that people do not have to eat pork to become infected with
cysticercosis. One can become infected by ingestion of water or foods or
from touching surfaces that have become contaminated with the infected
This study was designed to
investigate this as well as correlating their knowledge about
cysticercosis and prevalence of infection due to cysticercosis.
Given that the people in the study areas
have a cultural attachment to toilet and other activities. Since pig
farming and pork consumption has gained acceptance in the area, it
became necessary to study the population that are involved in this
activity with a view to as certainty the current level of knowledge
regarding transmission and in particular cysticercosis.
This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of cysticercosis in badirisa, Adamawa State.
Its specific objectives were to;
- Determine the prevalence of cysticercosis among secondary schools in badirisa.
- Determine the prevalence of cysticercosis among gender.
- Assess the association between prevalence rate of infection and age.
1.6 Research Questions
1. Is cysticercosis infection prevalence among secondary schools in badirisa?
2. Is gender associated with the prevalence of cysticercosis infection?
3. Is cysticercosis infection prevalence among age group?
1.7 Null Hypothesis
1. Cysticercosis infection is not prevalence among secondary schools in badirisa.
2. There is no association between gender and cysticercosis infection.
3. There is no association between age group and prevalence of infection.
1.8 Significance of the Study
The will provide and also enlighten
people on prevalence of the parasite in the study area. Data generated
can be used as baseline information in planning control strategies.
Finally, it will serve as a reference material to resources while
embarking on further resources.