Pregnancy is the common name
for gestation in humans. It is the development of one or more
offspring, known as an embryo or fetus in the uterus (Wikipedia 2009).
Pregnancy usually lasts for about nine (9) months in human beings. At
this stage the embryo is developing offspring during the first 8 weeks
following conception, and subsequently the term fetus is used until
child birth. In many societies, medical or legal definitions of human
pregnancy is somewhat arbitrarily divided into three trimester periods
of three months each as a means to simplify reference to the different
stages of pre-natal development. The first trimester carries the highest
risk of miscarriage (natural death of embryo or fetus). During the
second trimester the development of the fetus can be more easily
monitored and diagnosed. The third trimester is marked by further growth
of the fetus and the development of fetal fat stores (Wikipedia
Abortion is the expulsion of the
offspring in a state of development from the womb between one to seven
months of pregnancy, which is giving birth before the right time. In
most cases of abortion is referred to as miscarriage of birth. Abortion
should be considered as a lifesaving situation due to illness. But
however it is being practice at will due to societal changes and
orientations. It is a situation where life is being tempered and it is
becoming too dangerous and threatening to the life of the mother.
Abortion is also a form of
removing pregnancy from the womb, either by taking pills (medical
abortion) which involves taking medicines to cause miscarriage or by
surgery (surgical abortion) where the pregnancy is removed from the
womb. Most abortions can be provided on a daycare basis which means you
do not need to stay at a clinic overnight. Every year almost 12,000
thousand teenage girls have abortion (Bpas
Abortion consists of two types
which are the PILLS and SURGICAL abortion. The pills abortion is used
after 9 to 24 weeks of pregnancy which involves taking of medicines to
cause the womb to contract and push out the pregnancy. Also from 22
weeks after which the pregnancy is push out and an injection to the womb
is given. Such injections are given to ensure the homeostatic balance
of the uterus. However a checkup visit to the clinic is also required.
Surgical abortion is the dilation and evacuation of the fetus which
takes up to 15 to 24 weeks of the pregnancy. In surgical abortion the
doctors are required to remove the pregnancy using narrow forceps passed
through the neck of the womb. This form of abortion is carried out
under general anesthetic conditions (asleep). In surgical abortions, one
can visit the clinic and return home the same day of abortion (for
pregnancy up to 20 weeks) (Bpass 2009).
Abortion is obviously
increasing and identified as a social problem in so many ways, it
destabilizes the teenager’s educational career as a useful member of the
society. She is out rightly stigmatized by the society and in the long
run turns the girl into a prostitute. Another major incidence of
pregnancy and abortion is the socio-cultural background of people within
Numan Local Government. This is attributed to the orientation or
beliefs which subjected the girl-child to early hawking at a very tender
age of about nine or ten years. These inappropriate exposures make her
vulnerable as well asthe deceitfulness of irresponsible young boys and
old men, usually compromise with her innocence.
It is a common fact that the
impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our
secondary schools is spreading in our communities and this need to be
eradicated or reduced in the Local Government. In other words to solve
this problem the parents and teachers should mould their children to be
better adults. The government should introduce sex education in our
secondary schools and tertiary institutions,’ and introduce relevant
academic curriculum in order to reduce the cases of unwanted pregnancy.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Impact of pregnancy and
abortion on girl-child education are being identified as a major problem
that causes backwardness in a girl-child education. The study is aimed
at finding out what brought about pregnancy and abortion and also the
researcher will try to know whether harsh economic situation contributes
to the pregnancy and abortion in Numan Local Government.
The project is also on the
impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education among female
students in Numan local government area of adamawa state, is an attempt
to solve and provide answer to the following questions:
- That female students terminate their education/unduly because of the
impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our
- That there is inadequate parental care which leads to the rampant
cases of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose in embarking
on this research work is to find out and look into the problem of
pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education performance that prevails
in our secondary schools. The researcher will carry out this research
work in order to make his contribution and recommendation to our
secondary schools in Numan Local Government.
The researcher also chooses this
project to determine the level of performance of our female students in
our secondary schools in Numan Local Government) with a view and
determination to prove to individual, the society and the nation
concerned that, they are facing a serious problem that need every body’s
efforts to bring about apparent difference and lasting solution.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To have a thorough
understanding of the impact of pregnancy and abortion in our secondary
schools in Numan Local Government Area and the strategies put in place.
This project will attempt to answer to the following:
- Is improper training of female children cause pregnancy and abortion?
- Do you learn sex education in your schools or at home?
- Do you know any student that has experience pregnancy and abortion?
- What is responsible for pregnancy and abortion in your school?
- Who is to be blamed for pregnancy and abortion in your school?
- Will pregnancy affect your education?
- Is poor living condition of the family lead to pregnancy and abortion in your school?
- Is pregnancy and abortion a global issue nowadays?
- Is environmental influence causes pregnancy and abortion in your school?
In this research project, the
following hypotheses are subsequently stated to enable the researcher
arrives at the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education
in our secondary schools in Numan Local Government Area.
- Socio-economic status of the girl-child and to meet up with the
social changes in the society may significantly affect secondary schools
- Impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl- child education in our
secondary schools occurs due to parental failure to discharge their
parental duties adequately.
- The administrators of the schools cannot cope with their
responsibilities that brought about of pregnancy and abortion on
girl-child education in our secondary schools.
- In many schools sex education is not taught at all.
- Societal influence has acted as one of the problem that brings about
pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our society.
- The impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education is a
general problem not only in our secondary schools, but a general problem
in the society.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is assumed that what has
been provided in our post primary schools must have to be tested to
increase educational research, theories and practices. Sometimes partial
solutions of it is assured that the researcher embark on finding more
facts about the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education
in our secondary schools. The researcher will also make more efforts
geared towards throwing more light on pregnancy and abortion which has
become a national problem.
Many of the parents, schools
administrators and the public at large have expressed doubts and
dissatisfaction of the problem of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child
education in our secondary schools and to look into the causes and
prevention for its future occurrences.
Bearing in mind that secondary
schools children could be in their early or late adolescent stage of
development, teachers and parents should guide them properly especially
on sex education. Part of the problem could be solved by emphasing on
moral and religious education into our educational system.
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research will be based on
particular reference to our secondary schools in Numan Local Government
Area of Adamawa State. The researcher’s view is intended to look into
the issue of sexual violence against teenagers to prove the evidence on
the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our
secondary schools. The incidence will determine to show the consequences
of sexual violence in our secondary schools.
Also more comprehensive work is
expected on this project work due to the unwillingness, failure and
uncooperative attitude of some of schools administrators in some schools
visited, to produce substantial and effective records in order to
understand the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education
in our secondary schools.
The researcher however
restricted his studies to only five mix (female and male) secondary
schools within Numan Local Government area and they include the
- Government Day Secondary School Villanova
- Government Day Secondary School tare
- Vocational Technical College Numan
- Bright future secondary school Numan
- Government day secondary school Imburu/Numan