TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of
1.2 Aim and
Objectives of the Study
1.3 Significance of
1.4 Statements of
1.5 Limitations of
and Characteristics of Yoghurt
2.2 The evolution of
2.3 Process and
manufacture of Yoghurt
3.1 Materials and
Methods for Yoghurt Production
Conclusion and Recommendation
a fermented milk product, produced with a yoghurt starter culture which is a
mixed culture of streptococcus thermophilus and lactobacillus
bulgaricus in a 1:1 ratio. S thermophilus enjoys a faster
growth than L hulgricus.
It adds flavours and aroma to the yoghurt, though both organisms in
association produces lactic acid but acetaldehyde and dimethyl propanol, the
chief favour component of yoghurt is produced by L bulgaricus.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Every producer be it private or public
more especially profit making has objectives in mind to achieve, some of which
are to sue a process/method that is convenient and hygienic for himself,
workers and to the final consumer of his product (yoghurt).
Lack of research has landed many
producers of yoghurt into confusion on the method and process of producing
yoghurt, thereby producing a substandard yoghurt which may not meet the taste
of the consumers like “mouth feel and appearance”. They need to know the various methods and
different materials that are used in yoghurt which will improve its general
Moreover whichever method that is
chosen must be economical in all aspect, so that the producers will have some
profit after calculating the cost and the products retail price will not be too
much for the average consumer to afford.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Many producers of yoghurt are confused
on the methods and process of producing yoghurt, consequently, producing
substandard yoghurt which may not meet the taste of the consumer.
However, this research work is aimed
at developing appropriate process of producing yoghurts.
The research work is also aimed at
solving the problems of different methods of processing yoghurt.
Also, it is aimed at assessing the
economic aspect of the different methods of producing yoghurt which are
economical in terms of the cost.
This project is important to all
producers, students and researchers in food based discipline as it studies and
assess different methods adopted in yoghurt production. It will help students and researchers to know
the various materials used in the production of yoghurt which will improve its
This research work will also provide
suitable methods for the production of yoghurt, which will be economical (to
cover the cost of materials used for production).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Yoghurt production is very expensive
and most of its methods are tedious.
yoghurt produced, cannot keep for a long time due to the inability of the
producers to get the right materials fro the production of yoghurt.
The PH at which yoghurt is produced is
also another problem, because if the right PH is not gotten and controlled and
if it exceeds that PH level the taste will be too acidic and will not give that
sour taste peculiar to yoghurt. Also PH
above four (4) favours the growth of some microorganism such as coliforms,
staphylococci, pseudomonas etc. These
microorganisms can contaminate the milk, thereby making unfit for the
consumers. In food processing we have
garbage in garbage out which means that if you starts with a pour raw material
you are equally coming out with pour finished product.
OF THE STUDY
project is limited in scope to the various methods of producing yoghurt;
process development and economics implication of these methods, however, there
are limiting factors such as money, time and the unwillingness of some
manufacturers of yoghurt to reveal their process method and financial factors
of the product.
Money is required to purchase the
materials for the production of yoghurt.
Time is also a problem, as it is
needed to carryout the research work or project.