work is an attempt to evolve a quicker and easier method of achieving
cylindrical shape object from a work price. This will no double save
considerable human labour and time wastage involved in traditional manual
method of carving.
this preliminary experiment was carried out to determine the optimum speed of
this machine various design alternatives for achieving the design solution were
synthesized and a choice of an economic method which would satisfy the
objective was made. Based on the principles guiding the performance of the
machine, the dimensions and sizes of the various components were established.
materials were subsequently selected and fabricated to required sizes. The
machine was then assembled and tested.
testing, it was found to perform efficiently thus satisfying the objective for
which it was designed.
Trend in Lather Machine
Dimensions and Specifications
Statement of Problems
Purpose of Study
Scope of Work
Synthesis of Solutions
and Analysis of Problems
Summary of Costs
recent times, the demand for interior decorations and cylindrical objects has
been on the increase from the furniture and boundary industries. With it, comes
the choice of various designs and models. In order to meet up with the
increasing demand of the industries led to the design of a good number of
machines that can be used by the craftsman to create different wood designs, amongst
which is the wood lather machine.
from putting into practical the theoretical knowledge acquired from the class
room, the main objectives of the project are:
a) To use
available local materials in fabrication.
achieve a reduction in the cost of production of the machine.
reduce the labour cost and time spent on using hand tools for wood dressing.
create awareness for, and encouragement of indigenous technology.
productivity and creativity.
vital need for the fabrication of a wood lathe is significant in the much delay
and time as well as energy wasted in using simple hand took to carry out
operations moreover, the cost of importation of a lather machine, is too high
for average user.
to the use of other machine tools, the wood lathes machine will help to reduce
cost, save labour time and consequently increase the rate of production and
craftsman’s skill. It is also important to explore the design of machines to
improve on the ones already in existence.
the early middle age the lathe is still driven by a cord, the new lathe used
the tension of a bent tree branch or cut pole to provide a stronger and more
convenient way of furring coordinated with the pole was a treadle, which pulled
down on the cord wrapped around the work itself, or on a spindle attached to
the work. The treadle regulates the speed at which the piece turned. This
arrangement displeased with the need for an assistant. The troublesome feature
of the early lathers that the pole and treadle system did not address was the
need for continuous motion.
search for a lather that would turn in only one direction probably ended in the
fifteenth century, when the lathers powered by cranked flywheels and giant
wheels powered by hand foot horse, and even water were invented, Leonardo a
Vinci was one of the many inventors who designed the early continuous drive
lather. However, today, wood lather machined are powered by an electric motor
which provide the continuous motion needed.
wood lathe machines are made from metal steel, iron etc.
it was thought that the ancient Egyptians introduced lather turning. Perhaps as
much as 4,000 years ago. Despite a lack of hard evidence, it was assumed that a
civilized nation as advanced as Egypt’s – is known to develop the Potter’s
wheel and bow drill – possessed the technical know – how and skill to have made
the invention of the lathe inevitable. Instead, scholars now believe that the
lathe was invented around a thousand years B.C., and that its development may
have occurred simultaneously among the Etrusians in Italy, the Celts in Great
Britain, and the inhabitants of the Crimea. By the second century B.C., the
lather was known to most of the people of the Near East and Europe. Originally,
the lather was vertically oriented, like the Potter’s wheel. In the case of
farning, the lather was eventually mounted on a table France, to be used mainly
in a standing position. Virtually all early lathes were powered by cord and
required that a helper assist the Craftsman and Non- metal (Hard wood). Those
the frame made of wood are faced with the problem of durability and the ability
to withstand shock.
the major problems that are prevalent with the existing lathes are:
and vibration which translates into the spindle and bindweed thereby making it
impossible to reduce anything accurately.
not rigid or heavy enough.
base do not lock down well enough and operators often retightening it.
rest do not lock down well enough.
as the furniture and founding industries demand for cylindrical object
increases, the need for effective, economical and efficient lathe arise. To
meet up with the industrial demand and combat the problems found in the
existing wood lathe machines, hence the embarkment of this project.
TREND IN LATHE MACHINE FABRICATION
emergence of the lathe machine dated back to some thousand years B.C., but it
gained popularity between sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Then opticians
used it for cutting lenses, used in the construction of astronomical
Telescopes. They modified the relatively rough technique for special purposes.
Artisans and furniture makers used the large lathes in turning fancy works, though
the frames were made of wood and headstock depending on the work being done.
below are some related lathe machines:
A) CENTRE LATHE
centre lathe is used to machine metals, by rotating the work piece mounted
between centers against a cutting tool. The tool can be fed both transversely
and longitudinally with respect to the turning axis of the job. The tool can be
operated manually of automatically and many shapes as well as different works
can be carried out on the centre lathe such work as cylindrical, eccentric or
conical shapes can be machined. Also done on the centre lathe are threading and
B) CERAMIC LATHE
lathe is used for ceramic machining alone, though the operation is similar to that
of the centre lathe.
C) WOOD LATHE
wood lathe, just like other types of lathe, can be used to carry out a wide
range of machining operations. It saves time and does not need much skill as in
the use of hand tools.
DIMENSIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS
are the dimensions and specification as regards the fabrication of the wood
1. Total length
of the machine 1680mm
2. Total height
of the machine 1200mm
3. With of the
4. The electric
5. The space
between the bed rails 140mm
6. Diameter of
the headstock pulley 137mm
7. Diameter of
electric motor’s pulley 98mm
8. With of tailstock 240mm
9. V – belt A-56
length of work piece 1100mm
length of work piece 300mm
diameter of work piece 300mm
improve the existing wood lathe machine so that the output is increase and
operator fatigue is reduce.
CONDITION OF USE
Lathe to be
used in workshop environment, it must be able to withstand mechanical
to be no noisier than when manually turned. Wood lather to be capable of an output
higher than currently achieved in the existing once. The machine is to be
operated continuously for a period of 8hours in a workshop environment without
need for any attention.
capacity is the distance between centers and the swing which are the two basic
measurement of capacity for lathe. The distance between centers is the maximum
length of wood you can turn between the headstock and the tailstock. While the
swing determines the diameter of the jobs that can be turned over the bed.
RELIABILITY AND LIFE
machine must be sufficiently reliable compare with the existing once. Life
expectancy for full loading at 8hours per day must exceed 20years.
continuous guest to have the problems of man and his growing needs solved has
led to the establishment of factories and other industries, which necessitates
an intermediate technology. However, simple hand tools that were in used before
are no longer efficient for mass production. In the same manner the importation
f wood lathe machine as a substitute for these tools, likewise has failed to
meet man’s insatiable economy.
there comes the need for urgent attention to a better and locally made wood
PURPOSE OF STUDY
design and fabrication of wood lathe machine aims among other things at a
maximum justification of a simple way of scraping and cutting off wood at its
best quality at a minimum cost of labour, so that the financial burden of
people can be reduced.
simple design and construction of the machine, makes it viable reliable, and
easy to carry out maintenance services at minimum bearable cost.
SCOPE OF WORK
the machine comprises the frame made of metal, with the headstock fixed in
position; the tailstock moves along the bed of the machine, and the tool rest
mounted on a cross slide which can be moved both longitudinally and
transversely on the bed. It is located between the headstock and the tailstock.
operations, the machine is limited to only a turning and cutting of any type of
wood. Drilling operations cannot be performed on the machine.