African petroleum Plc, a Marketer of
petroleum products and chemicals, knows that public support and goodwill as
well as good corporate image are very important for business success. Tends to
be influenced by their publics which includes, its staff, shareholders,
customers and of course members of the press.
The company is actually very much
interested to know its public problem areas and opportunities with the aim to
improving the organization’s overall performance to enable them know what their
public thinks about African petroleum public Relations programmes and quality
of services of the organization to its publics.
researcher therefore decided to embark on this study with the objectives.
The objectives of the study are:
determine the extent of AP’S public Relations messages accessibility to their
publics and also find out whether AP’s public relations practices influence the
opinion of their publics.
data based on the scope of the study were collected through primary and
secondary data with structured questionnaire as the main instrument
administered to two hundred and fifty (250) respondents comprising forty
African petroleum staff, sixty share holders, one hundred and twenty customers
and thirty members of the press.
questionnaire was highly structured and open – ended where necessary. The
questions and the response were very standard to facilitate comparison of
responses and to secure good control of the questions, chi-square (x2)
was used to analyse the hypotheses formulated.
the findings were that the African Petroleum Public Relations Media Message and
quality of their overall services are satisfactory through their mobilization
programmes and enlightment campaign but needs more efforts. AP’s Public
Relation’s Practice influences their publics to favour her products through
persuasive and convincing communication. The following recommendation were
made; AP should always engage in a constant evaluation of their public
relations practice and its effectiveness to identify any short comings. Media
combination should be reviewed to always embrace appreciable coverage.
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Table of Content vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study 1
Statement of problem 4
Objective of the study 6
Formulation of Hypothesis 6
Scope of the study 7
Significance of the study 8
Definition of terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE
2.1 What is public relation 11
2.2 Role of public
relations executives in
out fit 26
Strategy and scope of public relations
Frame work of public relations
Importance of public relations in all
oil industry. 39
THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Sources of data 45
3.1.1 Primary data 45
3.1.2 Secondary data 46
Area of study 46
Research instrument 46
Questionnaire design/ interview questions 47
3.4.2 Dichotomous questions 48
3.4.3 Multiple choice questions 48
3.4.4 Open-ended questions 48
3.5 Sampling method used 48
Sample size and sampling techniques 49
Sample procedure 52
3.6 Pilot survey 50
3.7 Validity of the instrument 51
3.8 Method of investigation 52
3.9 Validation of instrument 53
3.10 Method of data analysis 54
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Part A. a table of responses to sex 56
Indication of free access to AP’s
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 72
5.2 Summary of findings 74
5.3 Conclusions 75
5.4 Recommendations 76
5.5 Limitations of the study 77
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The history of African petroleum Plc
date back to 1954 when the then British petroleum BP company Limited, brought
up the assets of Atlantic refining company on the West African coast Ten years
later (1964) that company was incorporated in Nigeria as British Petroleum of
Nigeria Limited which of course is a subsidiary of the world wide British
petroleum Group that marketed petroleum product throughout the Federal Republic
of Nigeria. In 1978, the company changed from a private company to a public
company, when forty percent (40%) of the shares were sold to Nigerian citizens
in compliance with provisions of the Nigeria Enterprises promotions degree of
1977. On the 31st July 1979, the Federal Government acquired the
sixty percent (60%) share in British petroleum (BP) Limited, just to make the
company wholly Nigeria affair. As a result, the name of the company had to
change to African Petroleum (AP) Limited which was in November 1979.
Accordingly, 20% of the Federal
Governments 60% shares in African petroleum were offered to the public in March
1989 in fulfillment of its privatization policy. The share were seven times
over subscribed during the exercise, thus increasing the number of share
holders from about fifty thousand to one hundred and sixty thousand share
holders. The company’s current paid up share capital of N 86.4M which of course
is the largest in the country.
As a marketer of refined petroleum in
Nigeria, African Petroleum (AP) procures and distributes petroleum products
like petrol (PMS), Diesel oil (AGO),
Household kerosene or Domestic petroleum kerosene (HHK/DPK), Low poor fuel oil
(LPFO), Liquefied petroleum Gas (LPG), fuel oil, Jet-A-1 (Aviation furbric
kerosene) etc the company also manufacture and market a wide range of
lubricants, insecticide and chemicals. This company’s marketing operation areas
are Kaduna, Kano, Port – Harcourt, Warri.
African petroleum plc has its head
office in Lagos. The main source of its products is the Nigerian National
Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) through its strategic network depots and
refineries. As contained in its Diary (1998) African petroleum is a world class
integrated petroleum company where outstanding and dedicated people supported
by superior technology deliver exceptional benefits to its shareholders”. Their
mission is to be an innovative and customer oriented, provider of quality
petroleum and related products and services”.
Businesses are open systems, and most of
what they do generates direct benefits and costs for their societies. Today
society demands that businesses join in the urgent task of solving societies,
problems. Corporations are more than economic institutions and have a
responsibility to devote some of their resources problems mainly of which
corporations helped to create.
However, small or large our enterprise,
we cannot isolate our business from the society around us. Nor can we function
without its goodwill. The researcher therefore tried to x-ray the public
relations practice in African petroleum plc to assess its effectiveness in
building desired goodwill imperative to healthy business survivability.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS:
African petroleum plc (formerly British
petroleum) that has been in existence since 1954 is now one of the major
marketers of petroleum products in Nigeria. African petroleum plc operates few
major marketing areas in Kaduna, Kano, Lagos and Port Harcourt. It has depots
at (Apapa) Lagos, Jos and Kano but its main source of Petroleum Company (NNPC).
Presently the company entered into the marketing of chemical, real estate
development and manufacturing of insecticides.
Coming to the ever-increasing number of
competition and continued fuel scarcity in the country, the company does not
fold its arms watching rather she continues to diversify and expand on its
activities. The reason being that should the company fail to satisfy her
numerous publics by constant supply of product as at when needed and of course
quality product, the publics negative reaction would affect its profit making
ability and in respect affect the nations economy. In the effort of improving
the quality of its product and services, as regards achieving public commendations,
goodwill and support, cannot in the actual sense understand how actually the
publics feel about their company’s quality of services and their public
This research work shall do justice to
address certain problems like
How far is the public relations
messages of AP plc accessible to her publics.
Were the right public relations media
Is the public relations department of
AP rated high by her publics in terms of its efficiency?
Does the public relations practices of
African petroleum plc influence the opinion of their public in favour of AP.
Do the public relations consider
African petroleum plc’s public relations practice as adequate?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
objective of the study are as follows:
To ascertain the extent of African
petroleum’s public messages accessibility to their public.
To know whether the right public
relations media were often used.
To determine whether AP’s public
relations practice influence the opinion of their publics in favour of African
To ascertain whether African
petroleum’s public relations department is rated high in terms of its
To find out if the publics of AP plc
consider their public relations practices as adequate.
1.4 FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
H01: The degree of African petroleum’s public
relations messages accessibility to her public is unsatisfactory.
H02: The right public relations media were not
H03: The public relation practice of African
petroleum does not influence the opinion of their public in favour of African
H04: The public relations department of AP is not
rated high in terms of its efficiency.
H05: The public considers African petroleum’s
public relations practice as adequate.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
scope of study is focused on public relations practices in African Petroleum
Plc. and their internal and external publics in Port Harcourt metropolis were
studies as for the topics covered, all the items as contained in the objectives
of the study and hypothesis were treated.
view of the office holders and opinion leaders were bought since they
constitute decision makers.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Coming to the diversification and
expansion of its activities, the current crisis and the ever-increasing
competition among oil marketing companies. African petroleum plc are concerned
with generating marketing information which all will help them to achieve a
favourable market share and maintain its profit marketing ability if really
wants to remain in business.
The researcher may after some
recommendation that will help to ensure an adequate and effective use of public
relations as a tool for business promotions.
Moreover, this work will also serve as a
working tool for Chief Executives and managers in the oil marketing sectors;
this piece of work will actually form a basis for further development and as
well contribute to the existing knowledge in the area of oil marketing.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
RELATIONS: Public relations is the
art and service of achieving harmony with the environment through mutual
understanding based on truth, knowledgeable and full information. (Sam Black
1990) in (Ajala 200/p.3)
COMMUNICATION: This means the process through which needs,
emotions, desires, ideas, sentiments and goals are expressed among human beings
using codes, symbols and languages understand by the parties involved in the
COMPANY: This can be defined as a business or an
organization created to pursue profit by providing goods and services.
DIVERSIFICATION: This is the financial strategy of holding
different investment to reduce the risk of financial loss.